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4. 3. 2012.

Training process continuity

Training process continuity is one of the basic sports training validities. In the basic of this validity is need that sports training effects, microcycles etc. mutually connect, so each next is built on traces of the last one. First assignment is to build the training on the way that secures all its positive effects. Second assignment is to avoid all unnecessary training process breaks, which can lead to losing, till then acquired, positive adaptative changes in the sportsmen body. Sometimes this can’t be avoided, due to unpredicted training situations(fex. injury) or due to planned decrease in load in some training process phases(fex. active rest phase), third assignment is to put the training regress on the minimum.

It is interesting that continuity requests appeared before more than 70 years. Everyday training during season was being recommended. However, this request is accepted pretty much earlier, when many adaptation laws on training influences were discovered.

Continuity of training process is featured with three basic assumptions:
1)      Sports training is built as a multiyear process that ensures the best effect of sports specialization and maximum sport results achievement.
2)      Relation between the parts of training process is ensured through connecting of fast, delayed and cumulative training effects.
3)      Exertion and rest changes in training process should ensure optimal conditions for training progress and maximum expression of sportsmen possibilities.

It is seen, from the written text, that training process continuity is not related on two trainings connection, or two microcycles, but, practically, on whole sportsmen carriere. In ideal situation, during carriere sportsmen doesn’t lose training continuity, unless in shorter periods of time, when he needs rest and recovery. That is specially related to top sportsmen.
It is often said that champions never return, even if they train very hard and properly. Answer to the question “Why?” should be looked adaptation and deadaptation processes.

Genetic material responsible for organism adaptation(RNK and proteins) is not uniformly spaced at people and isn’t inexhaustible. Each unit disposes with specified “amount” of this material, which means that people are differently gifted to adapt on training influences. Except of that, it should be carefully “expended” during carriere. It is thought that people are capable to handle summary maximal exertions only about 4 years of training. These four years have to be in the growth that is optimal for achieving the top results.

Each longer break in training, leads to training regression. When it is started again with training, genetic potential is exhausted for return on the previous training level, except of jump to the higher training level. Sportsmen that multiple times lose and return training level, pay the bigger adaptation prize, than sportsmen that respect continuity process.
Reserches of scientists whose main area is adaptation, have shown that multiplied losing and returning of high training level, under big loads, leads to organs damage which are part of the system responsible for adaptation. Respecting of continuity principles in training leads to economic usage of natural potentials, keeping training and adaptation level, health keep and longtermness in sport.
Researches have shown that everyday trainings, once of more times during the day, and condensed exertion-rest regime, help to keep or increase physical abilities level, technical- tactical skills and resistance to negative fatique influences. In practical work that is different with different growth and sports level sportsmen.
At young athletes is sufficient to train normally 1-2 times, in weak microcycles, apply bigger loads. That training regime would be unload or maintenance for top athlete – they train two or more times per day, and during seven days cycle adjust 4-7 trainings of big(not maximal) load.

Training effects can be quick, delayed and cumulative.
Fast training effects are changes in the organism condition in the end of simple training. Changes are expressed in all physiological systems if the load on training was big enough. Basic feature of fast training effect is decrease in the level of physical working ability, especially in areas that were the subject of unique training.
Delayed training effects depends of time between two trainings. Three types can be differed:
1)      First typ is featured by insufficient recovery of physical working ability because time between two trainings was short to enable coming to complete recovery. If trainings of same direction would be stringed, athlete would soon start to show the signs of overtraining. That is the reason why, after few trainings, done in the conditions of insufficient recovery, is given rest to the athletes, which leads to recovery and abilities supercompensation. These way of work is acquirable with development of basic and specific endurance.
2)      Second typ of delayed training effect is seen with usual training work, when till the next training enough time passes to establish beginning level of the physical work ability. This type of training effects doesn’t lead athletes to the higher levels, but it is very capable for training work that requires stabile conditions. About work- rest relation through training process, there are three possibilities: a) repeated load is received with non-sufficient organism recovery; b) repeated load is received when traces of the last disappeared; c) repeated load is received in the phase of supercompensation.
3)      For third typ is featured the phase of supercompensation – increasing of physical work ability. This way of training leads to total increase in physical abilities, because athlete is capable to do the work of bigger summary load size.
Cumulative training effects is the sum of fast and delayed training effects of training. Result of this effects summing is stabilizing or increasing of training condition. In sportsmen organism it comes to changes in its structure and function. In which direction will that changes go, depends on training structures.
Recovery after big loads lasts for more than 24 hours. However, recovery goes heterochrono, which enables to be trained everyday, cause some organism functions are recovered faster. Along with that, heterochrono runs adaptation processes, too. This fact enabled everyday training, more trainings in the day, summary increase of training loads and significant abilities increase without danger of overtraining. That means – it is needed to build the training deliberately, because there is no only one, but many variants that can give good results.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

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