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30. 3. 2012.

Body mass reduction

Process of body mass regulation includes huge number of various centers and mechanisms, which are not studied till today. Relations of apettite as basic indicator for food intake, according to real energy needs of one person, are very complex. Basic happenings are made on relation of hunger and satiety centers in hypothalamus, that are connected to peripheral by feedback system. The most important sensations from peripheria are taste and smell, content, or food presence in gaster; just as glucose and some other substances concentration in blood. In these complex processes significant place is reserved for food intaked metabolisms, just as various chormones activity.
Though all of these factors are indirectly entered into physiological regulation of food intake(body mass), level on which is maintained energy balance in organism is the most responsible for body mass regulation.
Like previously said, body composition is made by various elements that can simply be put in two components – fat and nonfat(LBM). This fact conditionates impossibility of exact prediction till which loss of body mass will come if specific reduction diet is applied, but approximate values can be said.
Body mass loss can be the fact of smaller or bigger drop of body fat, water content or muscle mass.
Procedure should start by determining the body composition condition, or representation of fat body mass component. It is very often spotted at physically active people that “fat” is not originating from body fat excess, but more signifier presence of muscle mass.
The most athletes succeeds, without huge activity, to maintain body mass. However, in some sports disciplines achieving of targeted body mass(body mass reduction) represents problem. In these cases athletes should be trained how to achieve body mass on fastest way, and along with that to respect principles of healthy nutrition and maintain elements important for sports form.
It is well known that body mass loss is lot faster in first few days once energy intake reduction is started. In beginning, energy deficit leads to accelerated degradation of glycogen from muscles. Process of glycogen consumption is followed by water release, that is connected in molecules of this polysaccharide. Theoretically, 1 g of glycogen is followed by 3g of water, so 300g of glycogen will lead to releasing of 900g of water, and it is total of 1200g loss in body mass.
It is thought that 70% of lost mass during first few days of reducted nutrition represents water, made by primarily glycogen degradation. Approximately 25% of body mass loss is the result of decrease in fat depoes, and 5% is made by tissue proteins digestion.
If energy reduction is continued on and on, it is seen that at the end of second week loss of body water from total loss in body mass is 20%, than reduction of particular body mass part has a lot higher value cause primarily fats are burned. At the end of the third week water loss is minimal. Then the size of reducted body mass is equivalent to energy value of lost fats from the organism.
Theoretically, if the loss of maximal body mass amount is wished during short term period(2-3 days), restriction of water intake would lead to this goal in the shortest amount of time. This way of reduction is still widespread among the athletes. It is thought that this procedure will exist as long as cathegorization according to body mass exists in various sports. Techniques of fast body mass reduction by challenging very fast fluid loss are extremely harmful to health. Sudden decrease in body fluid leads has bad influence to many physiological functions, which also leads to decrease in physical abilities that are significant to the athlete. Intentionally challenged reduction of body fluid is specially harmful for young people that are found in the phase of growth and development.
After these type of reductions it comes, after competition end, to very fast increase in body mass(return on mass before reduction), which is the consequence of return to normal energy matheria intake.
Under energy intake reduction is primarily thought food intake, total or particularly released fats(fat free or low fat). On this way energy intake is decreased, but at the same time nutritive value of intaked food stays kept, and deficit of some essential nutrient becomes impossible. At the same time, organism is spared from harmful effects or fat materia.
Fat food intake reduction must have its own limits, if achieved body mass is optimal for specified person. Small amount of specified body fats in nutrition has significant functions in organism.
Researches shown that in order of any reduction diet to be successful, following principles should be respected:
1)      Energy intake should be decreased, but essential nutrients intake should stay on same level.
2)      Diet should be made by groceries that suits to athletes taste, and which will enable hunger feel mastering.
3)      Plan of food intake is should be suited to everyday activity(training, professional activities…)
Following prepositions could be useful during meals creation:
1)      Choose the groceries with high nutritive , and low energy value from previously mentioned group of groceries(milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, bread and cereals). Groceries that are partly or totally nonrefined should be given advantage, cause in the process of refining important nutrients are lost.
2)      Group that is contained of milk and dairy products is excellent source of proteins, but very often these groceries contain big amount of fats. So milk, young cheese and fermented milk products should be chosen with reducted amount of fats.
3)      Regular follower of meat are fat substances, so lean meat should be chosen(chicken, fish…) prepared without addition of fats(baked or cooked).
4)      Fruit and vegetables carry with themselves huge amount of vitamins and minerals, and lower energy value. Containment of diet fibers in these groceries is high, which leads to longer feeling of satiety.
5)      Grain food and cereals contain huge amount of vitamins, minerals and diet fibers. In nutrition bread of integral flour should be used, grains, oat flakes, beans etc.
6)      Fluid intake should be high. Advantage is given to clear water, and then various drinks, tea, coffee with little or no sugar added.
7)      Limit the intake of salt, cause its presence is regular in normal food.
8)      Maximally reduce the intake of high energy food like: butter, margarine, cooking oil etc.
9)      Avoid use of alcohol, due to high energy, and non-significant nutritive value(1g of alcohol releases about 7kcal).
10)  Food should be intaked in small and often meals(5-6), which leads to better feel of satiety.

Some researches say that body mass reduction will be more successful if the most extensive meals are breakfast and lunch. If opposite occurs, it is often happened that dinner value is too big due to hunger cumulation, so planned energy intake is being overwhelmed.
 Theoretically, if daily energy deficit is 1000kcal, then it is needed approximately 3,5 days to lose 450g of fat, or to create energy deficit of 3500kcal(450x9=3500).
It is recommended that body mass loss is moderate, or that energy deficit is around 500kcal(approximately 20% of total energy intake), cause it is easier to be done in praxa, and newly created lower body mass is easier for maintenance.
If body mass is lost, energy intake in following period should be determined according to newly created body mass, to maintain body mass on normal value and to keep the reduction further.
Reduction of body weight becomes bigger as it gets close to optimal body mass value for specific person(set point weight).
Most of authors agree that nutrition should be concepted that protein intake is 50g, fat 40g and carbohydrates 100g. Changes are allowed in direction to increase protein intake to 70g, and on account of decreased carbohydrates and fats intake. Protein intake mustn’t be dropped due to prevention of following deficits: calcium, B1 vitamine and other essential nutrients.
Special regimes that leads to body mass reduction, at athletes that suffer from diabetes, hypertensia and other problems, should be created and controlled by doctors. 

“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

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