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2. 3. 2012.

Sports form - part II

 This is the continuation of the thread Sports Form - part I.

According to the structure, competition mesocycle can contain different types of macrocyles(fex. preparative, stroke, situational and competitive), that are built according to the program, regime and conditions of the main competition. Main competition regime modeling is secured with reproductioning its features in the structure of stroke and competitive microcycle; and modeling of outer conditions is done through creating circumstances for main event – preparation in suitable environment, main competition situation and  opponent acting.
Training contents are modeled the way they should have ability – their adjustment should have bigger effect than earlier achieved result. That means, that content choice is done to help in achieving “bigger achievements”. With closing of the main competition, it is obligation to achieve more specific, situational contents; that are by structure, character and intensity very close to activities that will be done on the main competition. In preparing mesocycle contents of “wide spectrum” are acquired, and later on their “abstracting” is done.

Sports form is the consequence of applied training load intensity, very important question is, when dropping of overall volume load should be done in order to come to sudden line of working ability increase – sports form correction.

During load dynamics construction in competitive mesocycle it is needed to apply the rule that is, in suitable measure, applied in mesocycle and microcycle. According to these under assumption that competitive mesocycle contains of one preparation, stroke, situational and competitive microcycle, in preparation microcycle overload extensity(E) will be increased; in stroke it comes to intensity increase(I), and, according to possibility of keeping as bigger intensity as possible, in situational level of intensity is increased to the maximum level, and in competitive it comes to extensity and intensity dropping, and work efficiency increase. That leads to the culminative spot of sports form expression(SF).

The most sensitive question is connected to volumen load dropping(extensity and intensity), that is shown in competitive microcycle, more concrete, how many days can the phase of decreased load in specified microcycle last. Theory and practical work show that the moment of training load dropping before the competition must be specified strictly individually. For example, someone likes to train “sharp” till the last day of competition, someone rests the last day, someone the day before the last day; someone does light, someone short, but intensive training…

From this it is seen that there is no specific rule, but hypothetically it can be told that if preparations lasted longer(5-6 weeks) without bigger competitions, load dropping moment before the competition can be done 2-3 days before competition, till athletes that were competiting during that period, which means they are in increased preparation phase, load dropping can be done even later, 1-2 days before competition.
Whole process of sports form raising, maintaining and dropping, becomes significantly more complicated, if it is cut with a lot of more or less important competitions. In that case goes constitution with short lasting mesocycle(around 3 weeks) or sports form is regulated in microcycles. That is the case in some of sports(sport games), where competitions are done from week to week, so it is necessary to apply competition ranking( if an opponent is stronger or competition more important, sports form should be set for that competition) and in that purpose it is needed to create special competitive plan that should be based on validations of training periodization or biorhythmic oscillations, or on organism work efficiency abilities.
In sports where that is possible(athletics, swimming, sport gymnastics…) it is wished that in competitive mesocycle number of important competitions is not big, but it should be treated like a normal part of training process.

However, it is needed to know, that main competitions take central place during sports training construction, due to training periodization adjustment according to them; which concrete means that planning and programming starts with them, and direction of the whole training process, with goal to bring the athlete in the top sports form.
Load dropping(typer period) is counted backwards from the competition day to the day of important competition, so it is very important to see what way of dropping will be used. More types of load dropping is used:
  • Sliding – with gradual extensity drop is gradually intensity being increased
  • Step- shaped – where dropping is done through alternately changes of bigger or smaller load, but with expressed tendency of global decrease in total volume load
  • Accelerated(mini-typer) -  adjusted if there is not enough time for complete typer(two big, or main competitions are too close)

It is thought that typer can be used only 2-3 times per year, more concrete – the number of times that is thought that the athlete can achieve the top sports formGradual load dropping is done in three phases:
·        First phase – from the beginning of the last training cycle till 14 days before main competition
·        Second phase – lasts 14. to 7. days before the main competition
·        Third phase – lasts 7. to 3. days before the main competition

Special attention should be payed to the third typer phase, in which programming of training work has to be done for each athlete individually. In sport games is used “general typer” for the whole team, but special attention is payed to individual specifications, which means it is needed to enable the usage of training methods and contents that are suitable especially for individuals.
An emphasize in third training phase is on strict competitive program specialization, with use of competitive(bigger) intensity, with huge decrease of load extensity(half and more time). It means that it is started with competitive work intensity(race,game…), but after amount of time work is stopped and it is never done to the end. On these trainings time is not measured, results are not valued, so the type of expecting and curiosity form moment that should be happened in the main competition is created.

Methods of sports form determination

Methods of sports form determination are not easy to be used, because sport results in various sports games and disciplines are valued differently, which concrete means, it is a lot simplier to determine and follow sports form in sports where results are numerously valued(meters, seconds, kilograms). However, in sport branches where sport results cannot be quantified in a proper way(martial arts, sport gymnastics, water jumps), sports form is mostly viewed according to multiple subjective coach views(grades). According to these variable objective value is approximately given.

It is especially hard to determine the level of sports form in sport games, where sports form is shown as the mutual value indicator(cooperativity) of the whole team, where it is very hard to value the level and contribution of the individual. In any case, during sports form determination, methods should be found, that are relied on showers developed from some objective measure analysis and can be numerously shown.  

“Technology of sports training and recovery”, Julijan Malacko&Dragan Doder

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