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21. 3. 2012.

Training individualization

Individualization is one of the most important factors in training. It means that coach has to relate to each athlete individually, in range with his or hers abilities, potential, studying features and sport specifications, non-related to sport performance. Your training model should be adjusted according to physiological and psychological athletes features  in order to increase process of training goals realization. 
Individualization should not be viewed just as method for technique correction or unit specialization for discipline or position in athletes. Individualization should be viewed as an object where you have an ability to objectively judge about and subjectively spectate the player. This will enable coach to understand unique needs on training and maximally increase his/hers abilities.
Often coaches follow non expertise way of training, letter by letter following top athletes training programs, completely ignoring his/hers uniqueness, experience and performance. More worse, coaches sometimes use this programs for juniors training. These athletes are physiologically and psychologically not ready for these type of advanced trainings, especially its intensive parts. According to Ritter(1982), coaches can maximally increase athletes performance on training if they follow some rules.

Planning according to tolerance level

Work capacity and individual ability analysis are necessary to determine top fatique limits of an athlete. According to these results, coach should plan load on training. Fatique capacity of each athlete depends of following factors:
·         Biology and anatomy age, especially at juniors and children, whose bodies didn’t reach maturity. Their training could be wider, moderate, less specific. Juniors can handle big loads and high training volume a lot better, but it is harmful to their tendons, muscles, joint and ligaments, too; so coach has to be warn
·         Experience and starting level to take part in sport. Work that is looked from athlete has to be directly proportional to his/hers experience. Though progress speed is different from athlete to athlete, coach has to be warn with loads that are given to them. If athletes from different areas and experiences train in the same surround, coach mustn’t underestimate their individual potential and features.
·         Individual capacity for work and performance. All athletes that are capable of same performance don’t have same work potential. There are few biological and psychological factors that determine work capacity.
·         Health and training status. Training status determines content, load and speed on training. Coaches with same amount of performance have different amounts of power, speed, endurance and skill. These differences prove need for individual training. Individualization for athletes that were injured or sick is strongly recommended. Though, health status also determines training capacity limits. Coach should know for these limits, and only tight cooperation between coach and physiologist or doctor can solve problems.
·         Load on training and athlete recovery speed. If you plan a work on training, consider factors out of training that can put huge expectations and goals in front of an athlete. Hard work in school, job, family or distance that has to be crossed to school or training can influent to recovery speed between two trainings. Due to this fact, coach should know athletes lifestyle and emotional status, and consider all of these factors when planning load and stress on training.
·         Athletes body type and nervous system type. It can play a leading role in training load and performance capacity. You can discover individual capacities by various tests, and if needed, seek for experts help. Coach can also study athletes behaviour on training, competition, even during social happenings. School, work place and family and friends behaviour, can also be the source of various informations. In any case, coach should seek for physiologist and psychologist help.

Individualized training

Work adjustment is individual capacity function. Precise standards are very rarely found. Children and juniors are easier adjusted to high volume with moderate intensity than low volume with high intensity. Ritter(1982) also suggests that adolescents should adjust to daily training under condition that it is ensured not to exhaust all of their energy reserves and to have enough time for play.
Children, compared to grown-up athletes, mostly have unstabile nervous system; so emotional conditions are changed very fast. This phenomenon asks for organization between their obligations and training, especially school obligations. Their sports training should be different in order to maintain their concentration and attention. Also, to increase recovery speed from injuries, keep correct work and rest change. It is specially important for intensive exercises where coach should be cautious with working methods.

Gender differences

Gender differences play an important role in performance and individual capacity on training, especially during adolescence. Coach should be aware that individual motor abilities are connected to chronological and biological age.
Coach should consider anatomy structure and biological differences in various ways. Females mostly resist to power training that is done long term without break. However, their core muscles has to be correctly strengthened due to shape specificity and size of hips and lumbal area. Training lasting is same with males and females. At training differences and female competition determination, menstrual cycle and chormone activity should also be considered. Chormonal activity changes influent physiological and psychological performance and capacity. Young athletes look for more attention than older ones. As with a lot of young athletes, training should be started with adjustment to moderate exercises before intensive or harder training becomes reality. Determine work capacity on individual basis. In numerous cases it is found that training performance during postmenstrual phase was longer.
After pregnancy, female athletes can start with training when reproductive organs return their normal activity. Regular, but warn training can start four months after birth, but competition training can start after 10 months.
Training individualization determines from coach to build individual training plans, based on his/hers individuality. These plans are necessary for each unique training. The beginning and the end of training can be organized and done in group. However, in main part of training, coach has to consider unique or small groups needs, ensuring that these groups have similar technical and tactical abilities.  

"Periodization, theory and methodology of training", Tudor Bompa

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