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30. 4. 2012.


Mesocycle is the medium training cycle contained of more smaller training units – microcycles. In it can be at least 2 microcycles, with minimal lasting of 15 days, and the most 6-7 microcycles that last maximum 45 days. Most of authors say that the most popular are mesocycles that contain 4 microcycles and last around one month. So some people say wrong – month cycles.
In mesocycles is build training process coordinated with main goal and assignments of period, phase or stage of preparation; enables optimum load dynamics and relation of methods and resources, and also rational regime of training influences, that stimulate adaptation on training conditions(but contain fatique at athletes) and recovery processes. This is saying that mesocycles are determined partially with same factors and circumstances like microcycles. However, that is not enough to explain the goal of medium cycles, cause they are not simple sum of microcycles. Basic factors that determine mesocycle structure are:
1)      Necessity of enabling cumulative training effect,
2)      Specificity of adaptative reactions on load,
3)      Priority goals and assignments in development  of sportsmen abilities,
4)      Training content,
5)      Competition calendar features – competition number and character,
6)      Length of intervals among competitions,
7)      Features of sports preparation in various periods of macrocycles,
8)      Recovery conditions,
9)      Biorhythmic factors.
Basic factor due to which mesocycle has to be accepted as necessary shape in which training process is built is management of cumulative training effect that is created as the consequence of microcycles series. These way will satisfy two goals. First, wished flow of athlete’s training development is enabled, cause it is related to whole, summary load, load specificity and other, related to this, relatively longer period of time. Second, violation of adaptative processes that threatens in conditions of chronic fatique is stopped.
Regulation of effort and recovery in microcycle borders is not sufficient, cause it has to be regulated in mesocycle as a whole unit. For example, after hitting microcycle athlete needs to be recovered, which means that in these microcycle it will come to variation of load size. This variation has wavy dynamics(huge loads – small loads), and wave size is medium compared to complete training structure. Medium load waves are some of typical features of training mesocycle.
In mesocycle microcycles of various direction are applied. Some microcycles are directed to trainness improvement(physical, technical, tactical…), others to integral preparation, third to recovery etc. Along with that, summary load in various microcycles can vary in wider limits. Following microcycles can be applied in four possible cases:
1)      In the situation of complete recovery from effort in previous microcycle.
2)      In the situation of increased physical work capacity,
3)      In the situation of visible, emphasized fatique,
4)      In the situation of first signs of overtrainness.
In fourth case microcycle that occurs has to be recovery microcycle. In other cases various diagnose can be applied.
In work with top athletes and athletes of high training level, in modern sport is viewed tendency to sum microcycle loads that enter the composition of mesocycle, by going through the way of fatique progression from one into the other microcycle. These type of training requires maximal mobilization of all organism reserves and adaptation to extreme difficult training conditions. That is the “impact” not only on physical, but to psychological component of a human. If this type of work is forced into the longer period of time – that is the road to overtrainness. Athlete needs to be rest, to enable adaptation processes to attain applied loads. After more hard cycles, it is needed to do recovery microcycle and that is the only correct road to enable wished training effect. This type of approach would be wrong with younger athletes, and multiply dangerous also. Situations 1) and 2) are more better.
If loads in hitting microcycles were bigger, loads in recovery microcycles are smaller. If lasting of huge efforts is longer, recovery microcycle will be longer.
There are few types of mesocycles, that are separated by lasting and content, and also have various place in macrocycle. All mesocycles can be divided into two groups. First group is basic, and other group is additional mesocycles.

Basic mesocycles are featured for training periods in macrocycle. Into these mesocycles are counted basic and competitive mesocycle. Basic mesocycles are basic in preparatory period, and competitive in competitive period of training. The essence of preparatory period is to create basis for successful competition in competitive period, so names of these mesocycles originate from there.
In basic mesocycle is done basic work on creating preconditions for competition. The fundament is built through development of basic and specific athlete’s ablities. Dependant of which devices dominate in mesocycle, basic or specific, basic mesocycles are divided into basic-preparatory and specific-preparatory. First and other type of basic mesocycle can contain huge amount of load, and also influent variously on training dynamics. Loads can be usual, in limits of reached adaptation level. Athlete organism, in that case, doesn’t have stimulus for adaptation on higher level, but with usual size of applied load it is stabilized. Due to that, this type of basic mesocycle is called stabilizing. It is featured not only by decrease in load size, but also with load and training method variabilities.
Bigger loads, that ask for determined adaptation period, influent positively on further development of athlete trainness. Mesocycle in which summary big loads are applied are developing mesocycles. In its structure key place is reserved for hitting microcycles of various type. There are more different possibilities of ordering microcycles in developing basic mesocycle. Usually mesocycle contains of 1-2 hitting microcycles, between which normal microcycles can exist. Developing basic is, by rule, ended with recovery microcycle. At significantly emphasized fatique, after very big loads, recovery microcycle is not enough for recovery. After that stabilizing basic mesocycle will go, which isn’t last long, cause these are usually two normal microcycles.
Training programs in basic mesocycle are featured not only by huge summary volumes and training intensities, but also by more often appliance of single training with big load. Instead of it, here is possible big variability in the choice of devices and methods for development of physical, technical, tactical and psychological abilities.
In all types of basic mesocycles, basic elements are training microcycles of various type. Recovery microcycles are usually common part of these cycles, while in its structure competitive and starting microcycles can be found very often. That is the case with specific competition calendar when there are competitions in preparatory period that are first in the season, and result is important. This example are cup competitions in soccer and basketball.
Competitive mesocycle in basic type of mesocycle, which structure, content and number in macrocycle mostly depends on sports branch or discipline specificity, macrocycle type in which mesocycle is found and number of competitive periods inside of it, competition calendar features and athlete’s sports level.
In competitive mesocycle intensive training work is done, whose assignment is to lead the athlete to the level of maximal abilities for performance on competition. It is cleared that it can only occur in the terms of complete functional recovery, by which it comes after optimal varying of load size, appliance of proper devices and recovery methods along with their rational combining with tonizing training, medical-biological and psychological devices. That is the way to navigate the process of sports form, in which athlete has to be inside competitive mesocycle.
Competitive mesocycles can be mutually very various, not only in different, but in the same sports branches and disciplines. Differences are specially emphasized in the lasting, structure and content of specific mesocycles. As an example, various mesocycles can be mentioned in all sports branches in which competitions are held, that are different by lasting, regime, system and content.
In the structure of competitive mesocycle competitive microcycles are dominant, that follow each other. Before the first competitive microcycle in a row, or instead of more important competition in mesocycle, starting microcycle can occur. After hard competitions, or after the series of competitive microcycles, recovery microcycle occurs.
Additional mesocycles are featured for specific phases of training process. Here are counted following mesocycles: starting, control-preparative, forecompetitive, recovery-preparating and recovery- maintaining.
Starting mesocycle is the first middle cycle of the season. This is reserved to start preparative period, and that determines features of the period. Basic goal is to “enter” the athlete into the season and prepare him for huge efforts that occur in next mesocycles of preparative period. Size of load in starting mesocycle is smaller related to basic mesocycles of the season. Loads are small, especially on the account of training intensity, while shape can be bigger, especially in sports branches for which endurance is the most important feature. Endurance is lightly increasing in the starting mesocycle. It is about start of the season, so preparative drills dominate. Motoric and functional abilities that influent to the efficiency of next trainings are increased. It is mostly about increase in aerobic capacities, basic strength, speed and flexibility. In this cycle, in the beginning of the season, technic-tactic repertoire can be widespread, especially if preparative period lasts longer, and if it is worked about younger athletes.
In normal circumstances, starting mesocycle lasts 15-20 training days and contains 2-3 normal microcycles, and, in the end of microcycle, recovery microcycle. It can also last longer or be repeated in the case that the athlete had a longer break from various reasons(mostly injury) or if the athlete was very passive in the transition period. In team sports, it can be programmed only for one member if there are proper reasons.
 Name on itself control-preparative period leads to its essence – control of reached prepareness level and further preparation. Sometimes it is called also preparative-control mesocycle, by emphasizing preparation component in its content. Control in this cycle means determination of training level and athlete or team sports form, that is done by previous work. This control has integral character, cause competitive drills are applied, and through competitions athletes are not only controlled, but also prepared further, to perfection. Except of competitive drills, specific-preparative drills are applied that are, by specificity, very close. Sometimes is needed to emphasize preparation through specific training drills, and sometimes to decrease level of load, if signs of general fatique appeared. Other access emphasizes competitions inside of cycle. First access is good if preparation period lasts longer, and other leads to its shorter lasting when it has to be hurried to enter the condition of sports form.
If preparation period lasts shorter, then there is no space for this type of mesocycle. Exception are top athletes that have full season and less needs for basic mesocycles. Related to their high training level, competitions in the border of control-preparative mesocycle are the most efficient device of fast entering into sports form, especially if competitive period starts with important competitions. However, control-preparative mesocycle doesn’t occur before competitive mesocycle. Through control on competitions, necessary view into integral prepareness will be obtained. That leads to correction in the next mesocycle, that is usually forecompetitive.
Structure of control-preparative mesocycle is created of training and competitive microcycles. Due to that, there is an accordance among theoretics of sports training that these mesocycle is transition type that is found between basic and competitive.
Forecompetitive mesocycle is typical for the stage of immediate preparation for the main competition or one of the main competitions. It would be wrong to ask for its place only in preparation period. Here is created preparation for the main competition, so it can be in the end of preparation period(if season starts with some important competition) or in competitive period in front of the main competitions.
In preparation period forecompetitive mesocycle is logically supervened to control-preparative mesocycle. In it all misses in trainness spotted into previous cycle should be corrected. Misses, if worked regularly, shouldn’t be more significantly emphasized. That means that enough time stays till the beginning of competition to remove them and to work, most of all, on tactic and psychological preparation for the competition. Generally, loads should be increased in specific work, but take care about timely relieve, for efficient development of adaptative changes and necessary “freshness” with which it should be accessed to the competition.
In forecompetitive period adaptation of an athlete to concrete competition terms should be enabled, so this type of mesocycles has model character. Its basic sign is that athlete is adequately prepared for successful competition. Related with that, it is necessary to model:
a)      exercises
b)     relation of various training resources
c)      size and load dynamics
d)     competition regime
e)      “outer” competition terms
Basic principle in work is: maximal closing of training process to competition conditions.
Competitive drills by its features should be on the level of expected on competition, and above that too. In any case, they shouldn’t overwhelm earlier level reached. Specificity of training process should be increased during cycle. On the other side, temporary appliance of contrast trainings, non-specific by its direction, is necessary. Number of these trainings, like praxa shew, shouldn’t be big and should be avoided in the last 5-7 days of mesocycle. That is significant change related to primary ideas of appliance “principle of the pendulum”.
Schedule of load size can be various, which in great measure depends on trainings in previous mesocycle. If previous mesocycle was featured by significant volumes, than in forecompetitive period should gradually, from week to week, decrease volume, and increase load intensity. Smaller volumes in previous mesocycle ask for wavy volume variation so the microcycle of bigger volume is changed with microcycles of smaller volume. In competitive period, when till the beginning of forecompetitive mesocycle were more competitions and when fatique of them is visible, in first microcycle athlete has to be refreshed, partially change devices, sometimes change the place of training etc. In the next microcycle load size and training specificity is increased. In all written variants, last microcycle has to be smaller load(for adaptation), but through significant decrease in volume, and maintain high, competitive specific work intensity.
Modeling of competitions regime in training is significant part of total modeling in forecompetitive mesocycle. It gathers load order, change of effort and rest on competitions that last longer and on which at least two times is a game or match, competition days regime etc.
All that is said is related to “internal” factors and competition conditions. Good preparation asks modeling of “outer” factors and conditions, cause they can have significant influence on sports result. On preparation competitions is needed to create conditions of main competition, preparing competition should be maintained in the conditions of surround and on the way how it will occur on main competition(climate and geographic conditions, judging conditions, space conditions, sport object and equipment features…). The biggest problem for coach is to prognose and model psychological conditions of competition. Conditions can be changed by influences from the inside, in athlete on himself, and out of the athlete, and can vary pretty widely.
In the preparation for extremely important, the most important competitions, not only season, but macrocycle, and often the whole carriere, like Olympic Games, in final preparation two mesocycles of forecompetitive type can be connected.
Structure of forecompetitive mesocycle is featured by competitive microcycles of model type and training microcycles. In some variants these two types can be combined.
Recovery-preparative mesocycle is typical for intrastages that are found between two competitive periods, but it can also be applied in terms of longer competitive period lasting(around 5 months) when it is not possible to maintain the athlete in the condition of sports form. In modern training praxa, in many sports branches and disciplines, more and more is avoided one longer competitive period of longer lasting and due to that during one year we meet two or three competitive periods. In the brakes between them, if last 20+ days, recovery-preparative mesocycle is applied. From its name is seen direction of this cycle – recovery and preparation. It is needed to recover the athlete from previous efforts, then to renew the base of its preparation and through specific work to regain sports form.
Structure of recovery-preparative mesocycle should have features of “small preparation period”. In the beginning the athlete rests, most often passively, dependant on the size of fatique in the previous period. After that devices are chosen and methods of active recovery and development of general abilities. Next microcycle should be tonizing with the content in which dominate specific-preparative drills. Only one type is written. Types of structure of these mesocycles type depends on:
1)      Intrastage lasting,
2)      Features of previous competitive period,
3)      Degree and character of athlete fatique,
4)      Degree of an athlete trainness,
5)      Sports calendar features,
6)      Significance of first competitions in the following competitive period,
7)      Required “speed” of reentering into the stage of sports form and other.
Recovery – maintaining cycle asks whole transition period if it lasts short. According to that, it could be the basic type of mesocycle. However, significance and lasting of transition periodare significantly smaller from other training periods, so it is counted in additional mesocycles. In this type of medium cycles athlete recovers not only from competitive period, but also from the whole previous season. Recovery is active with the main assignment to maintain abilities on determined level. This mesocycle, depending on numerous factors, can be differently built. In any case, in it dominate unloading and training basic-preparative microcycles, but in various variants can be determined other types of microcycles instead of competitive. 

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

The most beatiful goals in history

29. 4. 2012.

Short soccer history

The roots of soccer can be traced back to the Han Dynasty in second century China. The game tsu chu, or “kicking a ball”, was included in military physical training. An elaborate game of tsu chu was played on the emperor’s birthday. Teams would attempt to kick a feather-filled ball through a small goal that consisted of a net attached to bamboo poles. The stakes were high. Legends say the winners were treated to a feast while the losers were sometimes beheaded.
Kemari was played in Japan dating back to the seventh century. In this circular game, players had to pass the ball to each other without letting it touch the ground, similar in some ways to what we call hacky sack or footbag.
In 16th century Italy, a game called calico was played on holidays. Teams would gather in the city squares of Florence and Venice and compete in this game that involved kicking as well as handling the ball. Each team had 27 players who wore ornate costumes.

England The Birthplace of Soccer

Even though games that involved kicking a ball were played in other parts of the world, England is without doubt the birthplace of the game now known as soccer, or Association Football. (Trivia note: the word “soccer” is actually a shortened form of the word “association.”) You can even visit the actual birthplace of modern soccer—the Freemasons Tavern in London. It was here in 1863 that the Football Association was founded, but we’re getting ahead of ourselves.

Ancient England had its own form of a soccer-type game. The earliest English games may have been played to celebrate military victories. Some historians say that after a victory against the Danes, the English played a soccer-type game with the head of defeated prince. The real roots of soccer came not from the battlefields but from the streets of England and Scotland. Games of mob football were played in village streets and squares. Unlimited numbers of men from opposing villages would attempt to kick an inflated pig’s bladder. According to an early handbook, any means short of murder and manslaughter could be used to get the ball across the goal.
In spite of such “rules” these violent street games often did involve the injury and even death of both players and spectators. This led to the game being banned by the King. Even when it was illegal to play, people couldn’t help themselves; they just had to kick the ball. Despite laws and edicts, soccer-type games continued to be played for the next 500 years, particularly by working class men who played on Sundays, the one day each week they took off from the fields and factories.

A School Boy’s Game

In the 1820s, modern soccer began to take shape in the public schools of England. Schoolmasters recognized that the game promoted health and strength and could be “civilized.” So schools including Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Westminster began playing recreational games with a “ball” that was flat on both top and bottom. Each school developed their own rules and defined their own field of play. Before these schools began to organize the sport, matches were played in open spaces without boundaries.

Laying Down the Law

Graduates of English schools wanted to continue to play ball-and-goal games so they began to form clubs. In 1862 some of the grads drew up the Cambridge Code—10 rules that allowed the ball to be handled only to stop it in the air and place it back on the ground.

On October 26, 1863, representatives from 11 schools and clubs met at the Freemasons Tavern to hash out official rules of the game. One club, Blackheath, eventually withdrew from the debates after the group voted not to allow running with the ball or hacking an opponent. When that decision was made, the break between the games that would become soccer and rugby became official. The remaining 10 representatives formed the Football Association and published the original 14 Laws of the Game in December 1863.
Remarkably, these first laws contained no mention of fouls, penalties or referees. Despite its violent heritage, soccer at this time was considered a gentlemen’s sport. No gentlemen, it was thought, would attempt to foul to gain an advantage. Early matches were officiated by two umpires, one provided by each team. In the 1880s, a referee was added to keep time and settle disputes. When a disagreement arose, umpires would refer to this official—hence the name “referee.” By 1891, the referee had been moved on to the field of play and the umpires had become linesmen. Today, linesmen are called assistant referees.
Today, there are 17 Laws of the Game that determine everything from the size of the pitch or playing field, to proper attire for soccer players (see sidebar), to number of players per side and the length of the game. The Laws of the Game are now preserved and modified when necessary by the International Football Association Board (IFAB).

Soccer Becomes a Worldwide Sport

Within eight years, the Football Association had 50 member clubs and inter-school inter-club matches were being played before enthusiastic spectators. The first Football Association League Cup was awarded in 1872.

In that same year, the first international match was played between Scotland and England. Some 2000 spectators watched the match that ended in a 0-0 tie. The Scots used a passing attack that was new to the English players who were used to muscling the ball up the field in what resembled a scrum. By the 1880s, teams of professional soccer players were forming in parts of Europe.
English colonists took soccer to the corners of the globe. Soon teams throughout Europe, in Africa, South America and New Zealand were playing the game.
In 1904, football associations from seven countries met in Paris and founded the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The original members of FIFA were Belgium, Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Germany joined the federation immediately. Surprisingly, England originally snubbed FIFA, feeling that soccer was an English game and should be governed by the English Football Association. England joined FIFA in 1906 and an Englishman, Daniel Burley Woolfall became FIFA President. Today, FIFA has 205 member associations.

Determining the Best in the World

Nearly as soon as it was formed, FIFA began discussing holding a world championship tournament. The first World Cup competition came about in 1930 in Uruguay. Uruguay had won the Olympic soccer gold medals in both 1924 and 1928. There were no qualifying tournaments for the first World Cup, but only 13 countries decided to send teams on the long trip to South America. Uruguay won the first World Cup with a 4-2 defeat of Argentina in the final round.
To date, 17 World Cup trophies have been awarded in men’s competition and four in women’s. See the chart listing the World Cup Champions.

A League of Their Own

Frescos from third century China show women playing a soccer-type game. By the 17th century, women were playing organized soccer matches. In the town of Inveresk Scotland, records show that the married women beat the unmarried women in a football game.
Development of the women’s game was hampered somewhat by their attire. Women were originally required to wear bloomers and to keep their hair under caps. Fortunately this changed during the World War I. During the War, women’s teams attracted large crowds as they played exhibition games, sometimes against men.
The first women’s international match was played in 1920. An English team composed primarily of members of the famous Dick Kerrs Ladies beat Scotland 22-0. In 1921, an English women’s soccer match attracted 53,000 spectators. Unfortunately, the Football Association decided that women’s soccer was “distasteful” and banned women’s games from association pitches. Women formed their own association and began playing on rugby fields. The Football Associations ban against women was not lifted until 1971.

A Tribute to the Fans

No discussion of soccer is complete without mentioning the fans. It is the fans who have made soccer the most popular spectator sport in the world. Soccer fans are some of the loudest, most enthusiastic of any sports fans. The world’s largest stadiums are dedicated to the sport of soccer. (Trivia alert: The largest stadium is Maracana in Brazil with an unofficial capacity of more than 200,000.) More than 28 billion viewers in 213 countries watched television coverage of the 2002 World Cup competition.
Throughout the history of the game, great players and great teams have made their mark. Some of the great names in men’s soccer history are listed here.
Soccer is a very basic game with simple rules that has captured the world. Today, more than 300 million people play this truly worldwide sport.

“Soccer - history, methodics, tactics”, Veljko Aleksic&Aleksandar Jankovic

Zinedine Zidane top 10 goals

27. 4. 2012.

Preparative period

This period is in science literature also called basic period. This name is not good for use, cause for example competitive period is basic for somebody, and for other preparation period. So the name preparative period is significantly more suitable, and name on itself talks about the essence of this period – athlete preparation. Athlete prepares himself for successful match in competitive period by creating necessary motoric, functional, technic-tactic, psychological and other terms for successful match. In many sports branches preparative period is the period that lasts the longest. Of course, that is not the rule, cause there are numerous factors that determine period lasting in macrocycle:
-          sports branch specificity
-          stage of the many years preparation in which macrocycle is found with its periods
-          individual morphological and functional athlete features
-          previous training features
-          individual and team competition calendar
-          competition number and level
-          lasting of the phase of most important competitions
-          climate conditions
-          material – technic conditions
Following the older training teories, first part of preparative period should have emphasize on basic physical tactic and technic development, and other part should be specific preparation. This is justified only in the case that athlete is not well prepared, so it is necessary to develop its muscles and functional systems first. In all other cases, by modern theories, multiple training assignments are solved during the whole preparative period. On this complex access growth or athlete level will not have any influence. However, exercises of specific direction dominate in training. Other words, all types of training are always solved, but some of them, in some phases, have priority.
Usually preparative period is divided into two phases:
a)      basic-preparation
b)     specific-preparation.

Basic-preparation phase

In this phase is primarily worked on raising of basic preparation level, technic-tactic skills spreading, error correction in already adopted skills, increase in theory knowledges, athlete motivation for hard training etc. Training assignments are solved relatively independent. For example, it is separately worked on physical preparation and tactic preparation. Development of specific skills in the circle of physical preparation is also relatively mutually independant. Lots of exercises can by its character and structure be very differented from competitive exercise. Parallely with work of basic character flows specific preparation, but it is in the first part of this phase unimportant. One of features of this phase, and whole preparative period, is gradual increase of training specificity. On the beginning of the phase load is smaller and in its volume dominates over the training intensity. Along with basic-preparative and specific-preparative drills, in lesser volume competitive exercises are applied, too. This phase is longer for beginner, and shorter for top athlete.

Specific-preparative phase

In this phase specific preparation is significantly applied. Volume, intensity, structure and content of training is changed. Significance of specific-preparative and competitive drills is increasing. Training intensity is increased more and more along with maintaining of relatively big summary training volumes. Specific physical preparation is more and more related for technical-tactical trainings, and also competition itself. Whole preparation is oriented on competitive prepareness maintenance. Along with that, influence of competitive drills is increasing, cause necessarily in the end of this period athlete has to be taken into sports form, which means high level of physical, technical-tactical and psychological trainness and their harmonic relationship. Competitive drills are non-properly distributed – its number is increased in the end of this phase. Number of competitions varies from sports branch features. In sport branches type endurance, competition number is significantly smaller than, for example, sport games.
Specific-preparative phase is longer for top athlete, and shorter for beginner.
In sports games, preparative period is divided into three phases:
1)      basic preparation phase
2)      specific preparation phase
3)      integral preparation phase
Basically, related to classic share, there are no significant differences. Contents and features of preparative period remain same. Also, transition between phases is not emphasized, cause borders among them don’t exist – phases are overrun into each other. Division into three phases is suitable due to emphasizing of basic training direction and dominant devices emphasizing. In first phase basic-preparative drills are dominant, and in the second one specific-preparative drills, and the third are competitive drills. Preparation is done by “funnel principle”, cause with closing of competitive period is more and more specific.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

26. 4. 2012.

Craziest goals ever!!!

In-Out run

Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.
All the exercises in agility training are done at MAXIMUM RATE OF SPEED.
Blue lines symbolize direction backwards, and orange lines symbolize direction forwards. The goal of the exercise is to run to the cone and backwards in the maximal intensity. Distance between central cone and other cones is 5-7m. Test is over once last cone is touched and athlete is returned to the starting cone.


Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.
All the exercises in agility training are done at MAXIMUM RATE OF SPEED.

25. 4. 2012.


Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.
All the exercises in agility training are done at MAXIMUM RATE OF SPEED.

Agility lateral run

Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.
All the exercises in agility training are done at MAXIMUM RATE OF SPEED.

23. 4. 2012.

Competitive period

Competitive period is central period of macrocycle cause athlete prepares for it and in it, on competitions, realize their abilities. In the most of sports branches, competitions are placed during the whole year, but competitive period is not only the period before competition. Competitive period means only the most important among them, so it would be correct to call it the period of basic(head) competitions.
In this period the goal is successful game on competitions and achieving of results planned. Condition is to successfully solve basic assignment – maintainance and further increase in level of specific trainness and enter in the phase of relative stability of sports form. Sports form should be viewed as condition and process. That is especially important for sports branches where competitive period lasts long or have very divided calendar of competitions during season. In these sports branches it is needed to temporarily drop the level of sports form for further increase of its level. On sports form shouldn’t be viewed as the condition of optimal trainness, but the process where athlete, especially through competitions and specific training work, gets more and more perfection to the maximal limits.
Training assignments should be realized through application of competitive and specific- preparation drills, that are closer by specificity to competitive. In sport branches that have equal competition rhythm(Saturday-Saturday), in training structure competitive microcycles are extremely dominant. In sport branches of “rare” competition calendar, training specific-preparation microcycles are used. In any case, specific preparation have to be related to calendar of main competitions.  Other competitions are only fit into whole preparation process and they have training character. Due to specific influence, competitions are the most important preparation factor for main events, creating and maintaining of trainness and sports form and for control of athlete preparation. More significant are events of main competitions, cause they are harder for the athlete in any way. Related to that, goal of one competition can be only the goal of preparation, but also the device and method of preparation for the next following competition.
Functional possibilities should, eventually, be increased only through the level of competition, and training work should maintain it only on the level reached. That can also be told for technic-tactic abilities of the athlete. So basic rule of competitive period: in training and competitive process heavy changes are not allowed. To challenge changes, proper, sufficient stimuli are needed. On these stimuli organism cannot reply at the moment, cannot be adapted quickly, and modification of competitive stability leads to results drop and loss of sports form. If athlete is non adequately prepared in preparation period, this can be applied.
Number of competitions in competitive period varies from features of sports branch and athlete sports level. Top athletes, especially in sports games, have big number of competitions during season. The least number of competitions is in cases of endurance sports. Sport branches differ according to competition rhythm, too. For example, season sport branches have “hard” calendar of basic competitions, while in some sport branches(tennis) competitions vary all around the year.
In competitive period basic preparation decreases. It can be very different, which leads to specific preparation development and maintains balance with it.  Diversity of basic preparation methods is bigger through more monocyclic content of specific preparation.
Athlete in competitive period has to function technically-tactical on his maximum. Accent should be on variativity of technical-tactic activity in conditions or sports competition, just as maximal development of tactic opinion.
Differ of preparation period, in which expertise of trainer is important, in competitive period in first plan come athlete and his skill to use its possibilities and achieve planned results. Psychological preparation has the significant influence. Basic of psychological preparation should be on preparation for concrete competition and maximal mobilization of an athlete. Coach has to be ready to use eventual fail on competition as a motive for and stimulans for the following training.
Competitive period can be stopped few times by short brakes. Coach skill is to fit these brakes into fluid and operational training plan. Operational plan should be related to real training situation, which means that brakes in competitive period can have very variable content. In some cases is intensified training process, in others that is competition period, in third recovery character is used.
In some sport branches, completely justified, competitive period is shared into three periods:
  • Phase of early competitions
  • Phase of main competitions
  • Phase of late competitions.
This share only confirms huge variability in competitive period structuring. Coach mustn’t be a slave to the programs. His basic assignment is to find every day new solutions, adaptations and methods.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

Transition(postcompetitive period)

Transition period is also called postcompetitive, cause it starts right after the competitive period is completed, or when the athlete hasn’t got any significant competition in front of him.
Transition period is necessary part of macrocycle. It mustn’t be accepted as a period where there is no any kind of training work. That type of transition period is used earlier, but now it is past. Due to more reasons, primarily for training process continuity, in this period training work is done, but different of the one that is made in preparation and competitive period. Differences exist due to different goals and assignments in each period. Differences can appear among various transition periods, cause, for example, features are not the same for macrocycle where it belongs.
Basic goal in transition period is complete rest of an athlete, physical and psychological recovery and training level maintenance on determined level. In transition period following goals should be realized:
1)      Decrease in summary load size by volume and intensity. Volume of work is three times smaller than for preparation period.
2)      Completely leave individual trainings of maximal load.
3)      Maintain training level that is not lower for more than 10% related to training level in competitive period.
4)      Make corrections in physical, technical and tactic preparation; important for following season.
5)      Lessen the number of trainings in microcycle that shouldn’t be more than 4-6.
6)      Heal injuries made during season.
7)      After hard competitive period, 7-10 days of complete rest in natural conditions(mountain, sea). In this time period is not trained. Athlete should take a walk, swim lightly, apply recovery methods…
8)      Change training resources by applying more various resources of basic preparation. Athlete can recreatively apply some other sport.
9)      Change place of training and keep trainings as much as possible more in natural surround(forest, open ground, near river…).
10)  In basic physical preparation use as much as various exercises that are not used earlier in training.
11)  Individual trainings should be complex character cause these trainings are more interesting, easier to handle from aspect of load and influent the athlete wider.
12)  Eventual competitions in this period has to be friendly, revial or recreational character, without bigger demands.
13)  In the end of transitive period, starts the preparation for preparation period of the next macrocycle. Loads gradually increase, and also the specificity of training.
14)  In sport branches in which tactic influents more significantly on the result, basics of tactics for following season are set.
15)  Make the analyse of the last season and create training process correction based on it.
16)  Create goals and assignments or the next macrocycle and make training plans.
Transitive period lasting can be very various. It is usual that it lasts 4-8 weeks, but there are types with shorter and longer lasting. Very different can be the structure, too. Sometimes that is only one mesocycle of renewel-maintaining mesocycle. In other cases, these are two mesocycles. In first one the athlete rests, and in the second preparation starts for the next macrocycle. There are three mesocycles, if transition period lasts for a very long time.
Transitive period can also be various. There are three types or variants:
First type changes passive and active rest. After hard competitions athlete rests 1-2 months. Nevermind of this access leads to decrease of functional possibilities, it is complete in top athletes training that have longer sports  traineeship, and are found in the phase of abilities maintenance.
Second type is completely different. When competitive period is completed, athlete recovers few days actively or passively, and then continues with training. Trainings are relatively hard and similar to the trainings at the beginning of preparation period. On the first look, this type is unlogic related to goals and assignments of transition period. However, this type shouldn’t be forgotten compeletely. Praxa shew that it is correct access if it is worked about the athletes that, from any reason, didn’t have hard season, weren’t trained by planned loads or didn’t have complete season.
Third type is compromise between the first two. In it numerous resources of active rest are applied, but athlete loads and that non-specifically, with the goal to maintain the level of basic sports form components. This type is the most often and the most efficient, cause it solves two basic assignments of transition period.
In transition period athlete mustn’t be in sports form – it has to be dropped in order to create new form, and build it. But, as already mentioned, high level of training should be kept as the fundament of sports form. At young athletes, that still progress, training level in transition period has to be bigger than in previous macrocycle. That means that the athlete in new season, or new macrocycle, goes from bigger level, which is assume for higher level of sports form and better sports results. 

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

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