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14. 4. 2012.


Represents of narcotic group are morphine and its chemical and pharmacological analogs:
  • Opium
  • Morphine
  • Heroin
  • Methadone
  • Pethidine
  • Codeine

Pharmacological effects

Narcotics expose its features by affecting on endorphine receptors, and through potentiation of cholienergic neural system(miosis, slow breathing, constipation, blood pressure dropping…)

CNS effects

Morphine removes the strongest pains without causing general CNS depression or conscious loss. Morphine affects only on specific sensory experience. This opiate affects sedatively, causing sleep, too.

Behaviour changes

Like other opiates, morphine creates pleasant mood(euphoria).


Morphine decreases respiratory center sensitivity to the carbon-dioxide and depresses breathing. In the cases of overdose, these effect of morphine and analogs can be the cause for lethal outcome.


Stimulation of chemioreceptor zones and dopamine receptors in medulla oblongata, that is caused under the effect of morphine, causes nausea and vomiting.
All of the opiates are strong inhibitors of cough reflex. Morphine effect is featured by myosis – tearing of the eye pupil.

Gastrointestinal tract effects

Morphine and other opiates increase tonus of smooth intestine muscles, decreasing propulsive peristaltics, that results with constipation. Opiats effect creates pylorus spasm, and that leads to slower gastric emptying.
Opiats effect inhibitory on smooth muscles of urinary and bilary canals.

Sport appliance

Narcotics are used to remove pain(result of injury) and to enable athlete to continue with training or competition. By creating of relaxation, anxiety removal and appeasement, sports abilities are increasing artificially.

Harmful effects

The most dangerous harmful effect is fast drug addiction development(after 14 days of use).
Pain removal, created by injuries, increases the possibility to worsen condition and increases the risk of complications and serious injuries.


In the goal of removing moderate and easy pain that follows an injury, non-narcotic rimifons can be used. These rimifons by its analgetic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects can completely solve athletes’ problems. Alternatives that are suggested include derivates of antranilic acid, phenilalcanolic acid(diclophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen) and compositions like indomethacin and sulidak. Acetilsalicil acid and its derivatives are allowed for use. Caution is needed cause there are combinations of legal and illegal substances on the market.


Detection is done through urine, by using the methods of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.
It is thought that athlete is doped if concentration in urine is bigger than 1µg.

List of illegal narcotics substances:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine(heroin), hydromorphine, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphine, pentazocine, pethidine. 

“Doping in sport”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

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