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1. 4. 2012.

Sports carriere stadiums

Whole athlete carriere, in any sports branch can be divided into three stadiums:
  1. basic preparation stadium
  2. maximum realization of sport achievements stadium
  3. stadium of long sports carriere
This flow of sports carriere follows natural changes in human development, its biological progress, full maturity and fall. In sport science words, it is all about acquisition, specialization and in the end maintenance of sports mastership. Dynamic of sports and biological development are not always matched, that varies from numerous factors: sport branch features, athletes talent, features of its sports and biological development, conditions in which training preparation is taking place, social conditions where athlete lives… In some sport branches results are achieved in younger adult period, in some in mature ages. Due to that, it is illusory to speak about unique time and every other sports carriere organization. However, every sport branch has previously mentioned stadiums, just its lasting is different. Each period is further divided into phases.

First stadium has three phases:
a)      beginning preparation
b)     basic preparation
c)      specialization

Second stadium is divided into:
a)      foreculmination phase
b)     phase of maximal achievements

Third phase is divided into:
a)      phase of achievements maintenance
b)     post-carriere phase.

Each of phases contains of one or more year training cycles.
Sports carriere starts with the phase of beginning preparation, where basic assignments are similar to the assignment of school physical education. Basic training direction is on various physical preparation. Diagnostics has an important role here. Control should determine all missings of physical development and choose methods and appliances for their removal. Begginers are trained to know basic sports skills, especially in the technique of sports branch chosen. Creation of various technic basis, which is very significant, stops sports technique stabilization. In this phase is a lot mor important to follow and motivate natural young population development. Basic training type in this phase is basic physical and technical preparation.
Trainings should complement the physical education classes in school. There is a huge problem there, cause physical education classes in I-IV class of elementary school, basically doesn’t exist. Coach has to resolve all assignments by himself.
This phase lasts with huge individual variations. At children that earlier(for example around age 7) start with training, this phase lasts significantly longer(1-2 years). In the beginning work volume is 80-200 hours per year and it is increased from year to year. Trainings are planned 2-4 per week, and its lasting is usually in limits of 30-60 minutes.
In the basic preparation phase, when viewed from aspect of physical preparation, assignment is harmonical development of young athletes. Men should work on increase of basic functional abilities level, especially the ones that, by specificity, suit to sports branch chosen. Due to that, various preparation takes significant space in total training. With specialization, or significant increase of specific-preparation exercises, should never be hurried. In each sports branch technical specialization should also be various, especially in coordination complex branch.
Open question is when to start with specific directed training. In the most of sports branches that is growth between ages 10-12. However, there is no tendency that specific training shouldn’t be started earlier. In soccer, for example, optimal age is 8-10.
Basic preparation phase is set for first years of high school growth, when performances develop very fast, which should be used in proper way. It is especially significant to work on coordination, speed and explosive strengh development. Generally, appliance of the most effective training methods which appliance asks for very high intensity should be avoided, and also training with big load. Some authors think that physically and psychologically hard competitions should also be avoided. However, athlete has to compete. Condition is proper way of physical, technical and tactical preparation, which enables to the athlete to compete properly. In opposite, for young, non properly trained athlete, competition can even be harmful. Harmful effects can be in the area of its motivation for further training. However, this is the phase where most important is to form interes for dedication to the chosen sports branch or discipline.
Specialization phase is featured by its cleared dedication for sports branch, and inside of it for some kind of specialization too. For example, young soccer player is specialized easily for goalkeeper, midfielder, defender of attacker. With ages this specialization is more and more emphasized. In training effects control, basic features tests have less significance, and more and more physical, technical, tactical and psychological tests are becoming important.
Usually is recommended hard training work with the goal of increase in aerobic features. This recommendation can be accepted in sport branches endurance type, and applied volumes can be 2/3 and more of top athletes training volume. In sport branches where speed, explosive power and coordination are dominant features, work on development of aerobic abilities should be applied limitly. Nevertheless of aerobic performances role for later intensive work, in previously said sport branches huge training volume is irrational. Sport praxa shew that overdose of optimal aerobic work volume will lead to significant permanent changes in cells. Changes character is the type that athlete is capable for aerobic works, but not for specific training where speed should be shown. In this period features of sport branch should be respected.
In foreculmination phase fundamental specialization is carried out, which means that in basic training volume there is a significant increase in specific-preparation and competitive exercises part. Summary volume and intensity of training increase significantly, and more and more are used competitions as a significant factor of further sports performing. Competitive praxa influences more and more on training structure and its content. Generally looked, this is the phase where many parameters, especially volume load, reach its maximum. Each sports branch has its specific way to forming top athletes and achieving top results. This path is determined by some other factors, gender too. Usually results growth is faster at women than men. Females achieve their maximums in shorter amount of time, their time for achieving top performances is shorter.
In the phase of maximal achievements, athlete should completely realize his potentials. This phase should match with growth which is, in concrete sport branch, the most suitable for achieving maximal sports results. In the last decade its borders became widespread.
In this phase, training loads are on maximum. Emphasize is on specific training intensity. Year training volumes overwhelm 1000 hours. Basic preparation is decreased more and more and comes to 10% of basic training part, and it is applied along with strict appreciation of sport branch features, and mostly as active rest factor.
Phase of sports achievements maintenance starts when athlete trespasses its competitive peak. Result drop is the consequence of natural development, functional and adaptative possibilities and decrease in efficiency. However, athlete can also achieve good results in this phase, too. In sport branches where tactics and technics is important, athlete can compete well based on its competitive experience. In sport branches of less complex structure, where only one feature is dominant, for example sprint disciplines, experiences cannot bypass biological barriere.
Sports achieves maintenance is applied by changes in preparation process. Training methods are changing by applying exercises that were not used before, conditions of training are changing, loads are placed in year cycle in various ways, new training devices are used, structure of macrocycle is changed, and along with that competition calendar… Changes in process of sports preparation are searched, that can cause positive training and competitive effects. Training process individualization has very important role here. The end of sports carriere is closing.
End of sports carriere shouldn’t mean that athlete should completely stop training. Sudden stop in training can leave consequences on athletes health. Athlete should “get out” of training process gradually and the period of time should be equal to the period during which athlete was entering in the stadium of maximal sports achievements phase. This time period is called post-carriere phase.
Tendency of training in this phase is on gradual load decrease(especially intensive trainings), work specificity decrease and complete stop of competitions. Basic preparation is given advantage. Athlete also tries himself in other sport branches, that are similar to its abilities and interesses. Training gets recreation character.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

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