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01.04.2012.

Fatique and recovery in sport


In modern sport more and more attention is given to recovery. Some coaches even think that it is not a problem to make an athlete feel fatique, but it is a problem to rest him enough for the next training.
Fatique is a very complex term. There are more definitions in literature. By one of them, fatique is the condition of damaged functional balance in organism(homeostasis), that leads to temporary performance decrease to do the work of defined intensity. It has complex character and physical fatique is not the only cause of this condition. In each moment man expresses himself as unique bio-psycho-social functional unit, which means that fatique can be caused or enhanced by psychological and social reasons. In that view fatique in sport training is not an exception.
Fatique in sport is thought to be a powerful factor that stimulates mobilization of functional reserves, sets the limit of racional training effects volume and enables efficient adaptation, successful competitive activity and stops overtrainness.
There are many fatique theories, and most known are: poisoning theory, exhaustion theory and suffocation theory.
Poisoning theory points to metabolism products agglomeration, especially lactic acid, that operate like toxins that cause fatique.
Suffocation theory relies to insufficient amount of oxygen that is transported through blood into active muscles. Due to that miss, muscles “are asphyxiating”, and that leads to feeling of fatique.
Exhaustion theory says that basic condition for fatique is the consequence of energy resources exhaustion.
These theories, one by one, don’t explain the purpose of fatique appearance sufficiently, and not one of them can be denied. Maybe it is better to talk about fatique factors that are found till now. These are:
  1. hyperthermia
  2. dehydration
  3. demineralization
  4. energy depoes exhaustion
  5. pH growth
  6. potassium dislocation from the cell
  7. calcium ion dislocation
  8. neurotransmitters depoes exhaustion
  9. disorder of triptophane transport in CNS
  10. free radicals effect
  11. hypoxia
  12. psychological factor

Fatique is natural organism reaction that is used to its defense from too big loads that exceeds the limit of its adaptative possibilities and lead to pathological changes. One of the biggest consequences of doping in sports is in eliminating subjective and outer objective fatique signs. Athlete is been excessively loaded and after these loads, many times repeated, logic consequence is the violation of organism biological integrity.

Fatique can be shared in various criteria, on:
a)      visible and b) hidden;
a)      general and b) specific
a)      acute and b) chronic

Visible fatique is featured by decreased work capacity. Athlete is not in possibility to continue with work in the same range of load. Less exposed fatique is hidden fatique. It is harder to diagnose, cause it “hides” behind the normal level of physical work ability. So, athlete is in the condition to do the work of set intensity. Maintaining of physical working ability is achieved by compensatory mechanisms activation. However, noneconomity in work and changes in moving structure cannot be hidden.
Combination of other two shares, will result with giving the following fatiques:
a)      local acute fatique,
b)     local chronic fatique,
c)      general acute fatique,
d)     general chronic fatique.

Local acute fatique is caused by one-shot load, so it causes the fatique of some organs and system of organs. This fatique leaves significant consequences, so recovery lasts for very short amount of time.
Local chronic fatique is bigger, cause it is created as the result of multiply repeated loads, tightly directed. Agglomeration of excess consequences that are exposed some organs and systems, leads to its chronic fatique if proper rest periods are not applied. Appearance of this fatique type needs urgent intervention in training.
General acute fatique is, as said, general fatique of the whole body as the consequence of one-shot, very strong load. At extremely prepared athletes, appearance of this fatique is very rare and it can be seen spotted only after maximal loads. At weaker prepared athletes, especially beginners, this type of fatique can be seen as the consequence of loads that are lower than maximal. Causation is insufficient adaptation to exertion and turbulent organism reaction.
General chronic fatique is the consequence of multi-shot exertions, which consequences are accumulated due to organism impossibility to adapt on these loads. Athlete is fatiqued in this way, found in overtrainness condition, and urgent recovery is needed. Competitions in the condition of general chronic fatique are very dangerous and can have harder permanent consequences, not only on sports carriere, but on athletes health.
Huge significance is also given to the fatique diagnosing. Gathered info are precious for coaches, cause based on them training can be planned and programmed in lower or bigger structural units. They are important for sports doctor and physiotherapeut, especially from the view of recovery procedures choice.
Basically, recovery it she process by which homeostasis is set, in which it comes to returning of possibilities to the starting work level. Of course, that is only one of the variants, cause next training can occur also in the conditions of insufficient recovery and in supercompensation phase. Total recovery means that beginning(or higher) level of performance that was the most exploited in training is set and returns the last to the starting level.
Related to recovery character after differently directed loads, sport science came to the significant discovers. Optimal models of load changing various to size and direction are found. So, bigger efficiency of training process is enabled along with avoidance of general chronic fatique.
Two phases of recovery should be differed. First is the phase of functional changes, and it is related to early recovery process. In the second phase it comes to significant functional, but also structural changes in organs and tissues as the result of adaptation. Outer manifest of this adaptation is in increase of work ability, increase in work capacity and sport result. These changes are more permanent, though reversible if not maintained by training.
Recovery speed is various. It is not flowing uniformly, but it is the biggest on beginning, and then it goes slower and slower. Researches of recovery speed shew that athlete is recovered 60% in first third, second 30%, and in third only 10%. Recovery can be accelerated by various procedures.
Speed by which athlete is recovered, especially after maximal efforts, and speed by which its organism is structurally and functionally adapted to the loads, are significant showers of his sports talent.
Recovery instruments can be:
1)      practicing
2)      psychological
3)      medical

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

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