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31.08.2012.

Speed and power tests


It is important to remember that improvement of running speed is a complex process which is controlled by the brain and nervous system. In order for a runner to move quickly, the leg muscles of course have to contract more quickly, but the brain and nervous systems also have to learn to control these faster movements efficiently. If you maintain some form of speed training throughout the year, your muscles and nervous system do not loose the feel of moving fast and the brain will not have to re-learn the proper control patterns at a later date.

Power is a measure of force being applied at speed and therefore is a fitting commodity in the majority of sports requiring fast dynamic movements such as sprinting, jumping, throwing, weightlifting and most field sports.

The following are examples of speed and power tests:


30.08.2012.

Multiple Sprint Test


The objective of this test is to monitor the development of the athlete’s speed.

Required resources

To undertake this test you will require:
  • Track
  • Marker cones
  • Stop watch
  • Assistant.

How to conduct the test

The test is conducted as follows:
  • A 40m straight section on the track is marked with cones.
  • The athlete performs six 40m sprints with 30 seconds recovery between each sprint.
  • The assistant records the time for each of the 40m sprints.

Analysis

The quickest sprint time is multiplied by 6 to give an optimal sprint time.

The difference between the total and optimal times indicates the level of fatique experienced in the performer.

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

Performance assessment

A difference between the total and optimal times of less than 0.8s would be regarded as excellent for a senior player.

Target group

This test is suitable for active athletes but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.


Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

There are no published tables to relate results to potential performance in competition.

35 metre speed test

The objective of the sprint speed test is to assess maximum running speed. It involves running a single maximum sprint over a set distance.

Required resources

To undertake this test you will require:
  • Measuring tape or marked track
  • Stop watch or timing gates
  • Markers
  • Assistant.

How to conduct the test

  • The athlete undertakes a warm up.
  • A cone/marker is placed at 35m from the start line.
  • The athlete sprints the 35m from a sprint start.
  • The assistance records the time the athlete takes to complete the 35m.
  • The best of 3 x 35m sprints is recorded.

Analysis

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

The following table is for adults:

Rating
Male
Female
Excellent
< 4.80
< 5.30
Good
4.80 – 5.09
5.30 – 5.59
Average
5.10 – 5.29
5.60 – 5.89
Fair
5.30 – 5.60
5.90 – 6.20
Poor
> 5.60
< 6.20

Target group

This test is suitable for sprinters but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.

Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

There are no published tables to relate results to potential performance in competition.

The Wingate Anaerobic 30 Cycle Test


The Wingate anaerobic 30 cycle test(WANT) was developed during the 1970s at the Wingate Institute in Israel. The WANT has been the most popular anaerobic test to date but as a cycle ergometer test it is more specific to cycle based sports. The most commonly used test length has been thirty seconds. This is a time of period for maximal efforts where the major fuel source is anaerobic.

The test is used to determine peak anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic power is the ability to produce energy by the ATP-PC energy pathway. Anaerobic capacity is the combined ability of both anaerobic pathways to produce energy and so is shown as the average power output during the test.

How to conduct the test

The testing device is a mechanically-braked bicycle ergometer. After a 10 minute warm up the athlete begins pedaling as fast as possible without any resistance. Within 3 seconds, a fixed resistance is applied to the flywheel and the athlete continues to pedal “all out” for 30 seconds. An electrical or mechanical counter continuously records flywheel revolutions in 5 second intervals.

Resistance

Flywheel resistanc equals 0.075kg per kg body mass. For a 70kg person, the flywhell resistance would equal 5.25kg(70kg x 0.075). Resistance often increases to 1.0kg x body mass or higher(up to 1.3kg) when testing power and sprint athletes.

Analysis

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

Calculations

Peak Power Output(PP)

The highest power output, observed during the first 5 sec of exercise, indicates the energy generating capacity of the immediate energy system(intramuscular high energy phosphates ATP and PC). PP is calculated as follows:
  • PP = Force x Distance (number of revolutions x distance per revolution) / time in minutes(5 seconds = 0.0833 minutes).

Percentile norms for Peak Power for active young adults are:


Male
Female
% Rank
Watts/kg
Watts/kg
90
822
560
80
777
527
70
757
505
60
721
480
50
689
449
40
671
432
30
656
399
20
618
376
10
570
353

Relative Peak Power Output(RPP)

Peak power output relative to body mass is calculated as follows:
  • RPP = PP / Body mass(kg)

Percentile norms for Relative Peak Power for active young adults are:


Male
Female
% Rank
Watts/kg
Watts/kg
90
10.89
9.02
80
10.39
8.83
70
10.20
8.53
60
9.80
8.14
50
9.22
7.65
40
8.92
6.96
30
8.53
6.86
20
8.24
6.57
10
7.06
5.98

Anaerobic fatique(AF)

AF represents the systems total capacity to produce ATP via the immediate and short-term energy systems. AF provides percentage decline in power output and is calculated as follows:
  • AF = highest 5 sec PP – lowest 5 sec PP/ highest 5 sec PP x 100

Anaerobic capacity(AC)

Total work accomplished in 30 seconds. AC is calculated as follows:
  • AC = sum of each 5 sec PP or
  • AC = force x total distance in 30 seconds.

Target group

This test is suitable for sprint cyclists and sprinters but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.


Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

Assessment of anaerobic performance can provide the coach with valuable information about the athlete’s fitness status as well as allowing them to monitor progress through training. The test scores can reliably determine peak anaerobic power, anaerobic fatique, and total anaerobic capacity.

PWC-170 Cycle Test

The objective of the PWC-170 test is to predict the power output(watts) at a projected heart rate of 170 beats per minute(bpm).

Required resources

To undertake this test you will require:
  • Bicycle ergometer
  • Heart rate monitor
  • Stop watch
  • Assistant.

How to conduct the test

The athlete performs two consecutive six minute bicycle ergometer rides in which the work loads are selected to produce a heart rate between 120 and 140 bpm on the first session and 150 and 170 bpm on the second session. For each session the average Heart Rate(bpm) and Power Output(watts) are recorded.

Analysis

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

Calculations

  • Use a graph to plot the two points: X axis = Power(Watts) and Y axis = Heart Rate(bpm). Draw a straight line through the two points so that it is extended to 170 bpm.
  • Draw a perpendicular line from the point plotted at a heart rate of 170 bpm to the X axis.
  • Read off the projected power output at this point.

An alternative mathematical approach to determining the power output at 170 bpm is the Polynomial Approximation method.

  • Power output = ((P1 x HR2) – (P2 x HR1)) / (HR2 – HR1) + (170 x ((P1 – P2) / (HR1 – HR2)))

Where:
  • P1 = Power(watts) for session 1
  • P2 = Power(watts) for session 2
  • HR1 = heart rate for session 1
  • HR2 = heart rate for session 2

Example:
An athlete produces the following test results:
  • Session 1 – average heart rate of 130 bpm at 100 watts(600 kg/minute)
  • Session 2 – average heart rate of 153 bpm at 150 watts(900 kg/minute)
  • The predicted power output at 170 bpm is approximately 187 watts.

Power Output = ((100 x 153) – (150 x 130)) / (153 – 130) + (170 x ((100 – 150) / (130 – 153)))
Power Output = (15300 – 19500) / 23 + (170 x (-50 / -23))
Power Output = -182.6 + 369.57
Power Output = 186.96 watts

Target group

This test is suitable for sprint cyclists and sprinters but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.

Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

There are no published tables to relate results to potential performance in competition.


Flying 30 metre test


The objective of this test is to monitor the development of the athlete’s maximum speed.

Required resources

To undertake this test you will require:
  • 400m track – 60m marked section on the straight
  • Cone to mark 30m point
  • Stop watch
  • Assistant.

How to conduct the test

The test comprises of 3 x 60m runs from a standing start and with a full recovery between each run.

The athlete uses the first 30m to build up to maximum speed and then maintains the speed through to 60m.

The assistant should record the time for the athlete to complete the:
  • First 30m
  • Whole 60m.

To determine the athletes flying 30m time subtract the time for the first 30m from the time for the whole 60m.

Analysis

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

Predictions for 100 and 200m

The athlete’s 100m time can be predicted from their flying 30m time using the following algorithm:
  • 4.8793289 + (time x 2.2011769) + (time x time x -0.040363)

The athlete’s 200m time can be predicted from their flying 30m time using the following algorithm:
  • 8.9693467 + (time x 4.787071) + (time x time x -0.107128).

Normative data for the flying 30 metre test

The following data has been obtained from the results of tests conducted with world class athletes.

% Rank
Females
Males
91-100
2.90 – 2.99s
2.50 – 2.59s
81-90
3.00 – 3.09s
2.60 – 2.69s
71-80
3.10 – 3.19s
2.70 – 2.79s
61-70
3.20 – 3.29s
2.80 – 2.89s
51-60
3.30 – 3.40s
2.90 – 2.99s
41-50
3.40 – 3.49s
3.00 – 3.09s
31-40
3.50 – 3.59s
3.10 – 3.19s
21-30
3.60 – 3.69s
3.20 – 3.29s
11-20
3.70 – 3.79s
3.30 – 3.39s
1-10
3.80 – 3.89s
3.40 – 3.49s

Target group

This test is suitable for sprinters but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.


Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

There are published tables to relate results to potential level of fitness and the correlation is high with experienced athletes.

29.08.2012.

40 metre sprint test


The objective of this test is to monitor the development of the athlete’s acceleration and speed.

Required resources

To undertake this test you will require:
  • 400m track
  • Cones
  • Stop watch
  • Assistant.

How to conduct the test

The test is conducted as follows:
  • Mark with cones a 40m section on the track.
  • Athlete use a standing start with leading foot behind the starting line.
  • On the command “Go”, the athlete sprints as fast as possible through to the finish line.
  • Assistant records the time.
  • Athlete should have two attempts with approximately 2-5 minutes recovery period.

Analysis

Analysis of the result is by comparing it with the results of previous tests. It is expected that, with appropriate training between each test, the analysis would indicate an improvement.

Target group

This test is suitable for active athletes but not for individuals where the test would be contraindicated.


Reliability

Reliability would depend upon how strict the test is conducted and the individual’s level of motivation to perform the test.

Validity

There are no published tables to relate results to potential performance in competition.

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