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31.03.2012.

Sport and vegetarians


Vegetarian types:

1) Pescatarian (also spelled pescetarian). The word “pescatarian” is occasionally used to describe those who abstain from eating all meat and animal flesh with the exception of fish. Although the word is not commonly used, more and more people are adopting this kind of diet, usually for health reasons or as a stepping stone to a fully vegetarian diet.

2) Flexitarian/Semi-vegetarian . “Flexitarian” is a term recently coined to describe those who eat a mostly vegetarian diet, but occasionally eat meat.

3) Vegetarian (Lacto-ovo- vegetarian)
When most people think of vegetarians, they think of lacto-ovo-vegetarians. People who do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fish, shellfish or animal flesh of any kind, but do eat eggs and dairy products are lacto-ovo vegetarians (“lacto” comes from the Latin for milk, and “ovo” for egg).
Lacto-vegetarian is used to describe a vegetarian who does not eat eggs, but does eat dairy products.
Ovo-vegetarian refers to people who do not eat meat or dairy products but do eat eggs.

 4) Vegan
Vegans do not eat meat of any kind and also do not eat eggs, dairy products, or processed foods containing these or other animal-derived ingredients such as gelatin. Many vegans also refrain from eating foods that are made using animal products that may not contain animal products in the finished process, such as sugar and some wines. There is some debate as to whether certain foods, such as honey, fit into a vegan diet.

5) Raw vegan/Raw food diet
A raw vegan diet consists of unprocessed vegan foods that have not been heated above 115 degrees Fahrenheit (46 degrees Celsius). “Raw foodists” believe that foods cooked above this temperature have lost a significant amount of their nutritional value and are harmful to the body.

At vegetarians, especially the strict ones, deficits of few vitamins can be present unless their nutrition is balanced.
Plant origin groceries contain generally less energy, so energy intake can be insufficient, especially at people that are highly energy active. Solution is bigger energy intake, and especially groceries of plant origin that are good sources of energy: stone fruit, beans, peas, corn, potato, avocado, dried fruit, cereals and products from wholemeal. This food should be the part of main meals and baggings. On the other side, plant food with low energy containment is recommended to the people that are included in the program of body mass reduction.
Vegeterian female athletes can also be in risk of amennorhea, non regular menstruatio cycle. These athletes are under risk of stress fracture 4.5 times more than normal athletes.
Vitamine B12 deficit can be found at strict vegetarians(vegans). Meat, fish and eggs are the richest source of this vitamine, while its containment in cereals, fruit and vegetables is very low. So here supplementation with vitamine B12 will be helpful. 
Riboflavine containment(B2 vitamine) is very low in plant origin groceries, so there is a possibility of insufficient intake. Green leafy vegetables like broccoli contains a little bigger amount of this vitamine.
When legumes and grain food are dominant in nutrition, then it comes to decreased absorption of minerals like calcium, iron and zync; cause then it comes to increased creation of fitats, that disturb absorption of this mineral. Groceries rich with following minerals should be eaten more often. Iron rich substances are: stone fruit, beans, peanuts, peas, green leafy vegetables(spinach), dates, grapes and plums. Bigger amounts of calcium are found in following types of groceries: broccoli, cabbage and spinach. Zync is found in following groceries: wholegrain wheat bread, peas, corn and carrot. Also, egg yellow and seafood contain significant amount of zync.
Also soya groceries can be very useful, like tofu, tempech and soya milk, because these groceries contain 8 times more proteins than meat and also contain 8-9 amino-acids. They also have functions that protect from cancer and heart diseases. More soya products, bigger chance to decrease risk of tumor and decrease harmul cholesterole.
Non-adequate intake of amino acids can be found in vegetarians that don’t have significant intake of animal origin groceries that contain complete proteins. Two glasses of milk, two eggs, 90-120g of meat(chicken, fish and other meat, also cheese) satisfy all needs for all essential amino-acids.
Balanced nutrition, that is mostly created by plant origin groceries, can enable intake of all needed amino-acids. Wholegrain wheat products, rice, corn, soya, peas, beans and stone fruit contain almost all amino acids. Combination of this groceries will enable even at vegetarians to achieve completely satisfied intake of all essential amino-acids.
Vegetarian nutrition reduces intake of saturated fat acids(ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fat acids is 3:1 or over that) and cholesterole.
Here are some possible vegetarian combinations:
-          Cereals and milk products(lactovegeterians):
·         Cereals + milk
·         Pasta + cheese
·         Bread + cheese
·         Nuts + legumes and beans
·         Rice + legumes
·         Bread + soup of dried peas
·         Tortilla + legumes
·         Corn bread + beans chilli
·         Black bread + baked beans
-          Seeds and legumes:
·         Chickpeas + ground sesame seeds
·         Tofu + sesame seeds

“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic
"Sports nutrition", Nancy Clark


Ronaldinho free kick vs England 2002


Roberto Carlos 1997 free kick vs France


Nutrition before and during sports activity


Most of the athletes think that quantity and quality of food intaked, before and after training or competition, is very important to give maximum performance possible. Very often athletes believe that only specific type of food is good for them and they are very often connected to “magic recipe”. There are physiological and psychological factors that influent food and drinks choice in this period of training or competition.
Food intake before and during training has following goals:
  • Enable sufficient amount of energy for muscular work, especially during activities that last longer than 90 minutes
  • Keep normal level of glucose in blood
  • Some amount of food in gastrointestinal tract(GI) will remove hunger feeling and lead to absorption of gastric juice and stops improper feeling during training
  • Knowledge that some amount of proper food is intaked leads to feeling of security

It is needed during preparation period to create the pattern of fluid and food intake for the period before training(competition), according to the features of physical activity, physiology aspects of absorption, metabolism of food intaked and wishes of the athlete. The biggest problems can be created at activity where running, or body moves upwards-downwards are extremely emphasized.
It is marked that in 30-50% percent of cases in sports where ability of endurance is especially emphasized, syndrome of gastrointestinal problems can be present, like spasms, pain in area of gastric, nausea, diarrhea…
There are more factors that can influent badly to gastrointestinal tract symptoms:
  • Type of sport. In these sports where activity is done in relatively stabile position; like swimming, cycling and similar there is the lowest rate of GI problems. However, in soccer GI problems rate is high, due to jumps, sprints, sudden direction changes…
  • Years of training. The beginners occur more GI problems than advanced athletes. It is needed to have planned activities ahead about food and energy intake, especially at the ones that just start with sport activities.
  • Growth. Young athletes have more GI problems than the older ones, which is explained by non-experience and insufficient info about nutrition.
  • Gender. Females occur more problems during menstruation cycle.
  • Training intensity. Training of very big intensity can cause GI problems anyway, which is explained by reduction of blood circulation through GI tract and redirecting to active muscles.
  • Emotional stress. Mental tension and stress leads to longer food keeping in GI tract and various problems.
  • Type of food intaked. Food intaked before competition should contain reduced amount of fats and proteins, that look for long term process of digestion to absorb. Easy digestive carbohydrates with low amount of diet fibers should be given advantage.
  • Caffeine and concentrated sugar solutions. Too big amount of caffeine can lead to GI problems. There is a wrong opinion that huge amount of carbs can lead positively to physical training. Effect can be opposite due to causing GI problems.
  • Hydratation level. Dehydration leads to GI distress. During period of competition preparation drinks that are the best to deal with should be chosen(water, sports drinks, juices or any other liquid). During training(especially long term) habbit for often fluid intake should be steady.
  • Chormonal changes during training. Training changes level of various chormones, and the ones that lead to food decomposition and resorption from GI tract. These changes can cause symptoms and signs of GI distress.

Basic principles during meal planning before and during the competition

One of basic principles is everyday intake of sufficient carbohydrates amount in small meals(baggings) about an hour before training, which will disable feeling of hunger and maintain glucose level in blood.
If training will last over 60 minutes, carbohydrates with moderate or low glycemic index should be chosen.
Groceries like bananas, oatmeal, lens, yoghurt, apples etc. , intaked one hour before competition, will be mostly digested and prepared for further use  during training.
If training lasts less than hour, light food easy for digestion should be chosen, like: bread and rolls, crackers and pasta, that is rich with carbs, and has low amount of fat.
As previously said, food rich with fats and proteins demands complex digestion and longer keeping in gastric and intestines, so intake before training is not recommended. However, sometimes food that is rich with proteins with lower amount of fats can be recommended, because it leads to longer satiety feeling:
  • 2-3 leaves of non-fat turkey or chicken(as a sandwich)
  • 1-2 pieces or cheese spoon from skimmed milk(with bread)
  • 1-2 baked eggs(on toaster)
  • Glass of skimmed milk(in combination with cereals and banana)
If food that contains high percent of simple carbohydrates with high glycemic index is intaked 15-20 minutes before training, some athletes can have huge problems due to sudden glucose level drop in blood. In these cases intake of “small, sweet” meal 5-10 minutes before training can be useful, cause training start will stop sudden increase in insuline secretion.
To avoid unwished effects of meal entered before training, time of food intake is very important. It is known that at most athletes 3-4 hours is needed for bigger meal digestion, 2-3 hours for smaller meal, 1-2 hours for fluid meal and less than 1 hour for bagging.

 “Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

30.03.2012.

How to gain body mass


Huge number of athletes keeps body mass without problems or tries to lose a few kilos. But, there are also sport disciplines where athletes should increase body mass rapidly. This is primarily related to boys-adolescents, sport branches like: bodybuilding, hockey, rugby and some athlete disciplines; but it is also related to any other athlete and its own individual needs.
There are more conditions that can lead to body mass under optimal. If medicine, social and emotional factors are not considered, genetic factor has a significant influence on body mass.
Theoretically, to gain 450g per week, it is needed to increase energy intake for 1000kcal, along with normal energy intake. Whether it will or won’t come to body mass increase, cannot be surely claimed. Type and degree of physical activity can be changed, way of nutrition, without influence to body mass.
There is very often a wish for body mass increase at young athletes in period of adolescence. It is known that adolescent growth in height is proportional to adolescent lean body mass growth. Muscle mass that mostly makes lean body mass reaches its maximum with the age of 20. Though in one period of growth adolescents are non-symetric in its look due to insufficiently developed muscle mass, and nearly reached body height. Androgene hormones are the most important for periodics and muscle mass growth volume.
Basic principe for increase in body mass is increase in energy intake, while energy consumption should be modified by appliance of basic training type(training with load and resistance).

In order to have successful program for body mass increase(maximum increase in muscle mass, minimum fat component gain), it is necessary to follow next principes:
  1. It is needed to determine daily energy needs to maintain existing body mass.
  2. Set normal goal for body mass increase in some specified interval. Approximately 1kg per week is thought to be maximum.
  3. Analyze and follow body composition during program.
  4. To have bigger body mass gain, dream and rest are needed in bigger measure.
  5. Energy intake has to be increased.
  6. Start proper resistance training that will lead to muscle fibers hypertrophia.

Optimal energy amount should be increased for 20% from determined intake for maintaining existing body mass.
During grocery choice model of pyramide should be respected.

Some of following propositions should be used during nutrition planning:
  1. Decrease vegetables and food rich with diet fibers intake, that gives voluminose meals. These nutrition extends time for digestion, felling of satiety, and energy intake is low. Similar is related to food rich with water.
  2. Increase intake of food that has high energy and nutritive value.
  3. Increase of energy intake will lead to increase in fat and simple sugars intake. Intake of saturated fatty acids should be changed with non-saturated – plant oils.
  4. Increased energy intake should be set in 3 main meals and 2-3 baggings.

Groceries that are recommended in nutrition are following:
·         Cereals, like moesli or combination of various cereals with addition of nuts, bananas, chestnuts, dried or any other fruits. Cereals can also in combination with milk increase nutrition value of meal.
·         Beans and legumes contain significant amount of carbohydrates and highly nutritive proteins, so they are recommended in nutrition of the ones who wish to increase body mass.
·         Bigger intake of vegetables is recommended, like peas, carrot, corn and beet; that have significantly bigger energy value than green leafy and vegetables rich with water. Energy value of some kinds of vegetables will be increased by preparing on olive oil or other plant oils.
·         Potato is vegetable that should be extremely present in the nutrition of the ones that wish to increase their body mass. By adding unsaturated fats(margarine and similar) energy value is increased, and intake of harmful saturated fats and cholesterole is being decreased.
·         Salads should be eaten with homemade cheese(from skimmed milk), beans, sunflower seed, tuna or lean meat with the addition of olive oil.
·         Juices from apple, pineapple, grapes, peach and apricots are given advantage compared to orange, grapefruit or tomato due to bigger energy value.
·         Fruit that is recommended due to high energy value is: bananas, pineapple, dates, raisins, apricots…
·         Milk can be used in combination with powder milk. Also, here are drinks like milk-shake or combinations of milk and fruit.
·         Tost can be used with margarine, peanuts-butter, jam or honey.
·         Bread in combination with margarine, mayonnaise or sandwich with salad from tuna, chicken and similar; can be a good bagging.
·         Meat like beef, pork and lamb can contain higher amount of  fats, especially saturated fat acids. Advantage should be given to the chicken and fish meat that contain lower amount of fat.
·         Deserts that are recommended have big nutritive and energy value: cakes from oats flour with raisins, chocolate pudding, fruit compote, fruit yoghurt from skimmed milk, sweet types of bread with addition of honey, banana…
·         Baggings that are done along with main meals should be fruit yoghurt, non-fat cheese, crackers, peanuts, sunflower seed, almond, chestnuts, nuts, mix of cereals, pizza, milk-shake, warm chocolate, bananas, dried fruit, sandwich…
·         Alcohol(beer and wine) in moderate amount stimulates apettite and leads to energy intake. However, alcohol has small nutritive value and cannot change groceries like juices or milk. Alcohol intake before training or competition is not recommended due to diurese stimulation or hypoglycemic effects.

Result of planned increased energy intake at non-trained people initially leads to increase of muscle mass about 1,5kg per month, or 10kg per year. At highly trained athletes increase is smaller and slower.
At some athletes, nevertheless of good done nutrition program, genetic predisposition creates non-significant possibilities for body mass increase. This condition has to be accepted, and training should be directed to abilities important for the sport branch.
Protein supplementation is not needed, unless genetic predisposition limits effects of applied targets, to increase body mass.

= Amount of 25g of proteins
Arginine/25mg proteins
Leucine/25mg proteins
Milk, skimmed 3 cups
1050
2850
Tuna 120g
1800
2400
Chicken breast 90g
1600
2000
Egg white
2650
4200
Twin Labs, 24 pills
1020
3840
Amino Gold, 27 pills
1050
3780
Nature’s best
1320
3900

Use of anabolic steroids, that are derivates of male chormone testosterone, is very efficient in muscle mass increase, along with proper power training. This substances are illegal due to its harmful influences on the organism.

“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

Body mass reduction


Process of body mass regulation includes huge number of various centers and mechanisms, which are not studied till today. Relations of apettite as basic indicator for food intake, according to real energy needs of one person, are very complex. Basic happenings are made on relation of hunger and satiety centers in hypothalamus, that are connected to peripheral by feedback system. The most important sensations from peripheria are taste and smell, content, or food presence in gaster; just as glucose and some other substances concentration in blood. In these complex processes significant place is reserved for food intaked metabolisms, just as various chormones activity.
Though all of these factors are indirectly entered into physiological regulation of food intake(body mass), level on which is maintained energy balance in organism is the most responsible for body mass regulation.
Like previously said, body composition is made by various elements that can simply be put in two components – fat and nonfat(LBM). This fact conditionates impossibility of exact prediction till which loss of body mass will come if specific reduction diet is applied, but approximate values can be said.
Body mass loss can be the fact of smaller or bigger drop of body fat, water content or muscle mass.
Procedure should start by determining the body composition condition, or representation of fat body mass component. It is very often spotted at physically active people that “fat” is not originating from body fat excess, but more signifier presence of muscle mass.
The most athletes succeeds, without huge activity, to maintain body mass. However, in some sports disciplines achieving of targeted body mass(body mass reduction) represents problem. In these cases athletes should be trained how to achieve body mass on fastest way, and along with that to respect principles of healthy nutrition and maintain elements important for sports form.
It is well known that body mass loss is lot faster in first few days once energy intake reduction is started. In beginning, energy deficit leads to accelerated degradation of glycogen from muscles. Process of glycogen consumption is followed by water release, that is connected in molecules of this polysaccharide. Theoretically, 1 g of glycogen is followed by 3g of water, so 300g of glycogen will lead to releasing of 900g of water, and it is total of 1200g loss in body mass.
It is thought that 70% of lost mass during first few days of reducted nutrition represents water, made by primarily glycogen degradation. Approximately 25% of body mass loss is the result of decrease in fat depoes, and 5% is made by tissue proteins digestion.
If energy reduction is continued on and on, it is seen that at the end of second week loss of body water from total loss in body mass is 20%, than reduction of particular body mass part has a lot higher value cause primarily fats are burned. At the end of the third week water loss is minimal. Then the size of reducted body mass is equivalent to energy value of lost fats from the organism.
Theoretically, if the loss of maximal body mass amount is wished during short term period(2-3 days), restriction of water intake would lead to this goal in the shortest amount of time. This way of reduction is still widespread among the athletes. It is thought that this procedure will exist as long as cathegorization according to body mass exists in various sports. Techniques of fast body mass reduction by challenging very fast fluid loss are extremely harmful to health. Sudden decrease in body fluid leads has bad influence to many physiological functions, which also leads to decrease in physical abilities that are significant to the athlete. Intentionally challenged reduction of body fluid is specially harmful for young people that are found in the phase of growth and development.
After these type of reductions it comes, after competition end, to very fast increase in body mass(return on mass before reduction), which is the consequence of return to normal energy matheria intake.
Under energy intake reduction is primarily thought food intake, total or particularly released fats(fat free or low fat). On this way energy intake is decreased, but at the same time nutritive value of intaked food stays kept, and deficit of some essential nutrient becomes impossible. At the same time, organism is spared from harmful effects or fat materia.
Fat food intake reduction must have its own limits, if achieved body mass is optimal for specified person. Small amount of specified body fats in nutrition has significant functions in organism.
Researches shown that in order of any reduction diet to be successful, following principles should be respected:
1)      Energy intake should be decreased, but essential nutrients intake should stay on same level.
2)      Diet should be made by groceries that suits to athletes taste, and which will enable hunger feel mastering.
3)      Plan of food intake is should be suited to everyday activity(training, professional activities…)
Following prepositions could be useful during meals creation:
1)      Choose the groceries with high nutritive , and low energy value from previously mentioned group of groceries(milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, bread and cereals). Groceries that are partly or totally nonrefined should be given advantage, cause in the process of refining important nutrients are lost.
2)      Group that is contained of milk and dairy products is excellent source of proteins, but very often these groceries contain big amount of fats. So milk, young cheese and fermented milk products should be chosen with reducted amount of fats.
3)      Regular follower of meat are fat substances, so lean meat should be chosen(chicken, fish…) prepared without addition of fats(baked or cooked).
4)      Fruit and vegetables carry with themselves huge amount of vitamins and minerals, and lower energy value. Containment of diet fibers in these groceries is high, which leads to longer feeling of satiety.
5)      Grain food and cereals contain huge amount of vitamins, minerals and diet fibers. In nutrition bread of integral flour should be used, grains, oat flakes, beans etc.
6)      Fluid intake should be high. Advantage is given to clear water, and then various drinks, tea, coffee with little or no sugar added.
7)      Limit the intake of salt, cause its presence is regular in normal food.
8)      Maximally reduce the intake of high energy food like: butter, margarine, cooking oil etc.
9)      Avoid use of alcohol, due to high energy, and non-significant nutritive value(1g of alcohol releases about 7kcal).
10)  Food should be intaked in small and often meals(5-6), which leads to better feel of satiety.

Some researches say that body mass reduction will be more successful if the most extensive meals are breakfast and lunch. If opposite occurs, it is often happened that dinner value is too big due to hunger cumulation, so planned energy intake is being overwhelmed.
 Theoretically, if daily energy deficit is 1000kcal, then it is needed approximately 3,5 days to lose 450g of fat, or to create energy deficit of 3500kcal(450x9=3500).
It is recommended that body mass loss is moderate, or that energy deficit is around 500kcal(approximately 20% of total energy intake), cause it is easier to be done in praxa, and newly created lower body mass is easier for maintenance.
If body mass is lost, energy intake in following period should be determined according to newly created body mass, to maintain body mass on normal value and to keep the reduction further.
Reduction of body weight becomes bigger as it gets close to optimal body mass value for specific person(set point weight).
Most of authors agree that nutrition should be concepted that protein intake is 50g, fat 40g and carbohydrates 100g. Changes are allowed in direction to increase protein intake to 70g, and on account of decreased carbohydrates and fats intake. Protein intake mustn’t be dropped due to prevention of following deficits: calcium, B1 vitamine and other essential nutrients.
Special regimes that leads to body mass reduction, at athletes that suffer from diabetes, hypertensia and other problems, should be created and controlled by doctors. 

“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

29.03.2012.

Optimal nutrition planning



Optimal nutrition planning is the simpliest for understanding in the model of pyramid in which all groceries are sorted according to its nutritive value in four groups. For each grocery group basic portion(amount) is considered, just as the participation of each grocery group in total energy intake, said as portion number per day.  



By various grocery intake during one day is enabled intake of all needed nutrients in proper amounts. It is clear that each grocery contains limited number and amount of nutrients, and constant elimination of specified amount of groceries from food, especially at people with huge energy needs, there is a danger from some nutrients deficit.
For a very long time in nutrition is given advantage to the non-rafined or the least processed groceries, cause this procedure will keep their nutritive value the most. For example, in most cases groceries that contain cereals in integral groceries should be chosen, fruit instead of fruit juices etc.

Cereals, seeds and products

Basic and the most represented part in “pyramide model” is made of bread, pasta and other cereal products, and grain food. This groceries should enable in nutrition of highly active people 60-70% of total energy carbohydrates intake. Cereals and grains are very good source of carbohydrates, B vitamins and diet fibers.
During choose of groceries from this group advantage should be given to the groceries that contain as low percent as possible of fat that are often added to correct food flavour(butter, margarine, oil, high-fat cheese…)
To enable proper groceries intake from this group, it is recommended to take 6-11 portions per day.

Size and number of portions for group cereals and products
Groceries
Portion size
Athletes portion
Portion number
Cereals
30g
60-120g
2-4
Bread
1 piece
2 pieces, sandwich
2
Pasta
1 cup, cooked
2-3 cups
4-6
Rice
1 cup, cooked
1-2 cups
2-4
Recommended daily amount: 6-11 portions per day
 
When 6-11 portions is shared at meals, it is 2-4 portions per meal, which is equivalent 150-300kcal. Rest of 600-900kcal, how much are average needs per one athlete meal, are satisfied from other sources.
During grocery choice from group of cereals and grains athlete should chose the ones that lost the least from its natural form and content in the refining process. For example, advantage should be given to the integral rice, wholegrain wheat or any other cereal… In the groceries that are in its natural shape or only partially processed are found nutrients in the biggest measure: B vitamins, potassium and some other minerals, diet fibers… Following that, men should chose integral cereals(or various cereals mixture), just as bread and rolls from “black” flour. Wheat brans or oat flakes are rich with diet fibers, B vitamins and minerals. These cereals in combination with milk(reduced fat intake), banana, or apple juice make a very good meal(breakfast) for physically high active people.

Fruit and vegetables

Fruit and vegetables makes second part(above cereals) in the nutrition pyramid.
Vegetables is extremely rich source of C vitamine, carotenoids, potassium, magnesium, other vitamins, minerals and diet fibers. If it is talked general, bigger part of vegetables has higher nutritive value than fruit, so insufficient fruit intake can be changed with bigger vegetables intake. Huge part of daily needs for carbohydrates can be satisfied by bigger vegetables intake(potato, beans, peas…).
Recommended daily intake is 3-5 portions.

Size and number of portions for group vegetables
Groceries
Portion size
Athletes portion
Portion number
Broccoli
1 small cup
2 small cups
3-4
Spinach
1 cup
300g, frozen
3
Salad
1 small cup
1 cup
3-4
Spaghetti with sauce
1 cup
1 cup
2
Recommended daily amount: 3-5 portions per day

Coloured vegetables(dark green, orange and red) usually has bigger nutritive value than non-coloured. Dark green and yellow vegetables contains more beta-carotene than any other kind of vegetables. So advantage is given to the vegetables like: broccoli, spinach, green pepper, tomato, carrot and similar.


Broccoli, spinach and green pepper are the vegetable types that contain negligible amount of fat, but they are extremely rich with potassium and C vitamine. They also contain carotenes that are vitamine A precursors and protective phitohemics.
Tomato in fresh condition(salad) or sauce(ketchup) significantly lead to potassium, vitamine C, vitamine A and phitohemics intake.
Vegetables that goes under cabbage family: cabbage, broccoli, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower contain nutrients that are thought to have anti-cancer influence.
The biggest nutrition value of vegetables is if used in fresh condition. Conserving methods like deep freezing and sterilization enable to keep nutritive value of these groceries in big amounts. During cooking most of important nutrients are being destroyed.

Vegetables – nutritive score according to contain of 6 nutrients and fibers
Vegetables
Amount
Nutritive score
Red pepper
1 medium, fresh
309
Carrot
1 medium, fresh
171
Spinach
1 cup, fresh
130
Green pepper
1 medium, fresh
112
Parsley
1 cup, fresh
97
Broccoli
1 fresh
91
Green peas
1 cup, frozen
88
Tomato
1 fresh
76
Avocado
1 fresh
71
Cauliflower
1 fresh
58
Beans
1 cup, cooked
54
Celery
1 medium, fresh
50
Corn
1 cup
50
Cabbage
1 cup, fresh
43
Beet
1 cup, conserved
32
Radishes
1 cup, fresh
18
Cucumber
1 cup, fresh
14
Onion
1 cup, fresh
14
Mushrooms
1 cup, fresh
12

Fruit is important in nutrition cause it represents the carrier of carbohydrates, diet fibers, potassium, vitamins(especially C) and phitohemics.
Recommendation is to enter every day 2-4 portions of fruit.

Size and number of portions for group fruits
Groceries
Portion size
Athletes portion
Portion number
Orange, juice
180g
360g
2
Apple
1 medium size
1 big
2
Banana
1 little
1 big
2-3
Conserved fruit
1 cup
1 cup
2
Recommended intake: 2-4 portions per day

During fruit chose it is important to know that in citrus fruit(lemon, mandarine, orange and grapefruit) and in juices contain of C vitamine and potassium overwhelms containment of these nutrients in other fruits and juices. So approximately 180ml of orange juice enables daily needs for 60mg of C vitamine, potassium amount that is lost during one hour of work, folic acid and other B vitamins. Orange juice has lower energy value, and bigger number of nutrients than other juices from other fruit(apple, grapes, peach…)


Banana is, no doubt, favourite fruit of many athletes. This grocery contains low amount of fat, it is rich with diet fibers and potassium, and it leads to fast compensation of this mineral that is lost by sweat.

Fruit – nutritive score according to contain of 6 nutrients and fibers
Vegetables
Amount
Nutritive score
Papaya
1 medium
252
Melon
¼
213
Strawberry
1 cup
186
Orange
1 medium
169
Mandarines
2 medium
168
Kiwi
1
154
Mango
1
153
Watermelon
2 cups
122
Cranberry
1 cup
117
Grapefruit
1
103
Appricots
2 fresh
72
Banana
1 medium
60
Apple
1 non cleaned
58
Peas
big
48
Apple
1 cleared
42
Peach
big
39
Raisins
1 cleaned
35
Peas, conserved
2 halves
16

Fruit like kiwi and strawberries are very good sources of vitamine C and potassium.
Dried fruit is very rich with carbohydrates and potassium, and it can be a good lunch cause it is very easy to carry.

Meat, eggs and milk(groceries rich with proteins)

In third group are mostly animal origin groceries(different types of fish,meat and eggs) that are rich with high nutritive proteins. Plant origin food like: beans, stone fruit and legumes, can also be added to this group. These groceries enable primarily essential amino-acids, and darkred meats contain huge amount of iron and zync.
It is recommended that intake of third group is 2-3 portions per day.

Size and number of portions for group meat, fish, eggs
Groceries
Portion size
Athletes portion
Portion number
Tuna
60g
180g
3
Chicken
60g
180g, white meat
3
Peanuts butter
2 spoons
2-4 spoons
1-2
Lens, soup
1 cup
1 plate
2

1 cup
1 cup
2
Recommended intake: 2-3 portions per day







During choose of third group groceries it is necessary to know that them at the same time very often contain huge amount of fat.
Meats that are recommended in nutrition are: non-fat baked beef, chicken, turkey and fish.
Beef meat, except of high value proteins, contains significant amount of iron, zync, B vitamins and some other nutrients.
Fish is used in nutrition in fresh or conserved condition. Recommendation is that fish is prepared three times per week. Advantage is given, due to lower fat intake, to sea fish like: tuna, sardine and blue fish, but all other types are acceptable.
Peanuts butter also belongs to this group of groceries. Few spoons of  this butter along with wholegrain bread or banana are a very high nutritive meal that contains proteins, vitamins and diet fibers.
Beans, lens and other legumes, prepared with lower percentage of fat, represent a good source of proteins and carbohydrates.
On this level of pyramide are also found: milk, dairy products, and various types of cheese.
These groceries contain significant amounts of calcium, phosphorus and B vitamine. Recommendation is that milk, and products(yoghurt and cheese), contain decreased percentage of fat(1% or less). Importance of milk in nutrition is following: amount of calcium in one glass of milk is equal 2,5 cups of broccoli, 8 cups of spinach, 2,5 cups of white beans…

Size and number of portions for group milk and dairy products
Groceries
Portion size
Athletes portion
Portion number
Milk, skimed
240ml
480ml
1,5
Yoghurt
240ml
480ml
2
Caciocavalo
45g
90g
2
Recommended intake: 3-4 portions per day

Fats, oils and sweets

Fourth group of groceries and top of pyramide is reserved for fats and “sugars” which primar role in nutrition is to increase energy value of the meal, but to increase the flavour of intaked food. Importance of fat for lyposolubile vitamins metabolism is written here. Recommended amount and type(according to fatty acids saturation) are presented in the table below.

Containment of three fat acid groups(monounsatured, polyunsaturated and saturated) in some groceries
Fats
Saturated
Monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated
Animal origin fats
Butter
65
30
5
Beef fat
50
45
5
Chicken fat
30
50
25
Monounsaturated oils
Olive oil
15
75
10
Peanuts oil
20
50
30
Polyunsaturated oils
Sunflower oil
10
20
70
Corn oil
15
25
60


“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

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