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26.11.2013.

Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players

One more excellent research that supports that squat is very important exercise for soccer players and opens it strong correlation with sprint and vertical jump in soccer players.
More details available HERE.

Isokinetic strength and anaerobic power of elite soccer players

Just found out fantastic research about isokinetic strength and anaerobic power of the elite soccer players. 
More details available HERE.

07.09.2013.

6-week plyomethrics training and its relationship to agility improvement

Plyometrics, also known as "jump training" or "plyos", are exercises based around having muscles exert maximum force in as short a time as possible, with the goal of increasing both speed and power. This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or "explosive" way, for example with specialized repeated jumping. Plyometrics are primarily used by athletes, especially martial artists and high jumpers, to improve performance, and are used in the fitness field to a much lesser degree.
Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.
I am giving here a fantastic research about how will 6-week plyomethrics training improve your agility performances.

10.08.2013.

Proprioception and injury



Proprioception, Performance and Injury

Terms proprioception and proprioceptive reflexes are often used when discussing muscle performance and injury prevention. The term proprioception is broadly defined as the awareness of posture and movement. Movements of joint systems are constantly monitored by various sensors called proprioceptors. The reflexes that arise from these proprioceptors can initiate, inhibit or fine tune joint movements by actions on the muscle motor neurons. By influencing muscle activation and contraction, these reflexes play an important role in stabilizing joints and preventing injury.

What is Proprioception?

Information about joint movement, muscle length and force are all provided by proprioceptors, small structures that are found in muscle, ligaments and tendons that are connected to the spinal cord by neurons. Well known proprioceptors include the muscle spindle which monitors muscle length, tendon organs that monitor that amount of force applied to the tendon, and joint receptors that monitor joint position, movement and acceleration. Proprioception operates under the concept of feedback. When a proprioceptor identifies an unwanted movement, it sends a signal from the joint, muscle or ligament to the spinal cord. Within the spinal cord, the signal can either initiate or inhibit the motor neuron responsible for muscle contraction. That is, proprioceptors can cause a muscle to contract or relax. These reflexes are very fast, occurring within 20-50 thousandths of a second (millisecond) and are designed to protect the joint from unwanted movements.

The best example of a proprioceptive reflex is the knee jerk. The knee jerk begins when the patellar ligament is tapped (this is the thick band that attaches the patella or knee cap to the tibia or shin bone). This causes rapid knee extension or a “jerk”. The reflex happens as a result of the tap causing a small but rapid stretch of the quadriceps muscles. The rapid stretch activates the muscle spindle that lies within the muscle. This stretch causes the muscle spindle to send a signal to the spinal cord. There, the motor neurons controlling the quadriceps are activated, causing the muscle to contract and shorten, counteracting the stretch. An important concept is that this reflex does not involve information processing by the brain. It is far too rapid. The muscle spindle is stretched, a signal is sent to the spinal cord, the muscle contracts and shortens. The brain is aware of what has happened but the movement is initiated within the spinal cord.

Many feel that the stretch reflex is very important in stabilizing joints and preventing ligament injury. For example, a player cuts by planting her left foot and accelerating to the right. As force is applied to the foot, the ankle begins to turn inward (inversion). This, in turn causes a small, but rapid stretch of the muscles that turn the ankle outward (eversion). The stretch activates the muscle spindles of the stretched muscles (the muscles on the lateral side of the lower leg) and causes them to contract. The force exerted by these muscles counteracts to inward movement. In this case, the stretch reflex aids in preventing the athlete from “rolling” her ankle and injuring the ankle ligaments.

Ligaments also have proprioceptors that exert protective reflexes. A number of researchers feel that proprioceptors within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are sensitive to tension placed on the ligament. One function of the ACL is preventing the tibia from sliding forward with respect to the femur (the bone of the upper leg). When the tibia moves forward and the ACL is stretched, these proprioceptors trigger the hamstring muscles to contract. The hamstring force pulls the tibia backwards. This stabilizes the knee, reduces ACL tension and reduces the risk of being damaged. This reflex is thought to play a role in protecting against ACL injuries. Its importance is seen in athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. In these athletes, the reflex is greatly diminished and may even be absent and may contribute to the high rate re-injury.

Not all proprioceptive reflexes activate muscle. Some are inhibitory. The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) is located in the tendons of most major muscles. This proprioceptor is sensitive to the amount of force exerted by the muscle. If, during muscle contraction, excessive force is placed on the tendon, the GTO sends a signal to the spinal cord. This signal inhibits the motor neuron and causes the muscle to relax. This inhibitory reflex is designed to protect the tendon from being damaged by excessive muscle force. Better to relax the muscle than to have it ruptured or torn away from the bone.

Force production by muscles during dynamic activities such as landing, cutting and running is a complex interaction of activating signals originating from the brain (voluntary control) and modulating signals arising from proprioception (reflex control). The brain activates specific muscles for a specific task and the proprioceptive reflexes modify contractions to accommodate unexpected changes in movement.

Can We Train the Proprioceptive System?

When an untrained individual lands a jump, there is a brief period of muscle relaxation (around 50 msec) that is quickly followed by contraction. As the person lands, the knees and ankles flex stretching the quadriceps and calf muscles. This should trigger the stretch reflex and cause a rapid contraction. However, the excessive force of lengthening (or eccentric) contractions seems to trigger the GTO and cause a brief period of relaxation, about 50 msec. Shortly after the relaxation period, the brain initiates contraction of the hip, knee and ankle extensor muscles so that the athlete can land the jump without collapsing.

Several research studies also show that trained athletes have enhanced proprioceptive reflexes. In the example above, that brief period of relaxation when landing a jump is replaced by a period of enhanced muscle activation. Training seems to either improve the stretch reflex or diminish the GTO reflex. Either way, the proprioceptive reflex is enhanced following training. This results in greater and more rapid force production at landing as well as improved height of a subsequent rebound jump.

Proprioceptive training involves exercises such as jumps, cutting maneuvers and balancing activities. They are designed to evoke rapid changes in movement of the knee and ankle. The idea is to place stress on the joint by simulating “unwanted” joint movements very controlled conditions. These movements are thought to “Train” the proprioceptive reflexes as well as build strength of the musculature. Research has shown that programs targeting proprioception, balance and strength training do indeed result in reduced injury risk.

Summary

Proprioception or the awareness of body position and joint movement is an important aspect of normal neuromuscular function. The reflexes that arise as a part of the proprioceptive system are critically important for peak performance and reducing the risk of joint injury. Coaches and athletes should remember that a part of any comprehensive training program should include exercises designed to enhance proprioceptive reflexes.

Further Reading

Ergen E, Ulkar B (2008) Proprioception and ankle injuries in soccer. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 27:195-217.

Hewett TE, Paterno MV, Meyer GD (20020) Strategies for enhancing proprioception and neuromuscular control of the knee. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 402:76-94.

Silvers HJ, Mandelbaum BR (2007) Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. British Journal of Sports Medicine, Supplement 1:i52-i59..

04.08.2013.

Muscles adducting the toes




Adductor hallucis

Adductor hallucis is situated deep within the plantar aspect of the foot. It arises by two heads, oblique and transverse. The oblique head comes from the plantar surface of the based of the second, third and fourth metatarsals and the sheath of the tendon of peroneus longus. The transverse head comes from the plantar surface of the lateral three metatarsophalangeal joints and the deep transverse metatarsal ligament.
The muscle fibers of the oblique head pass forwards and medially while those of the transverse head pass medially. The two heads unite and blend with the medial part of the flexor hallucis brevis to insert into the lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe.

Nerve supply

Adductor hallucis is supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3, and the skin covering this area is supplied by root S1.



Action

It will adduct the great toe towards the second toe, and flex the first metatarsophalangeal joint.

Functional activity

Working with abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis helps to control the position of the great toe so that active flexion can be produced and thereby provide the final thrust needed in walking, running or jumping. Due to its transverse position across the forefoot it will also help to maintain the anterior metatarsal arch of the foot.
The pull of adductor hallucis is almost at right angles to the phalanx and therefore will have a better mechanical advantage than abductor hallucis. If the medial longitudinal arch is allowed to fall, allowing the foot to drift medially and the toes laterally, the pull of adductor hallucis will overcome that of the abductor, thus adding to the deformity often seen in the great toe.

Palpation

This muscle is too deep to be palpated.

Muscles abducting the toes





Abductor hallucis
Abductor digiti minimi

Abductor hallucis

Abductor hallucis is a powerful and important muscle found superficially on the medial side of the plantar aspect of the foot, lying deep to the medial part of the plantar aponeurosis. It arises, in part, from the plantar aponeurosis, the plantar aspect of the medial tubercle of the calcaneus, the flexor retinaculum and the intermuscular septum separating it from flexor digitorum brevis.
The fibres pass forwards forming a tendon which passes over the medial side of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe, to insert into the medial side of he base of the proximal phalanx in conjunction with the tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis.

Nerve supply

Abductor hallucis is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, root value S1, 2, with the skin covering the muscle supplied by root L5.



Action

As its name implies, the muscle abducts the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint and also helps to flex it at this point.

Functional activity

Abduction of the great toe is not of importance as such, except perhaps as a party trick and then very few people are able to perform the action easily! However, the muscle is strong and bulky, and it must therefore be assumed that it has an important role to play in some specific activity.
Due to its position along the medial side of the foot, together with the fact that it is attached at the back and front of the medial longitudinal arch, it can act as a bow-string to the arch when the foot is being used for propelling the body forwards. Its attachment to the medial side of the great toe also helps in controlling the central position of this toe when it is being flexed.
It should be noted that when the muscle contracts hard, the great toe does indeed move medially, but more importantly, the foot is positioned laterally, thus improving the relationship between great toe and medial side of the foot. Indeed, if this alignment of the foot and toes was encouraged from an early age many deformities of the toes may be prevented.

Palpation

Place the fingers on the medial plantar aspect of the foot, under the medial longitudinal arch. The toes are then flexed and the belly of the muscle can be easily palpated towards the heel. Tracing forwards from the heel, the tendon of the muscle can be felt.

Abductor digiti minimi

Abductor digiti minimi is found on the lateral side of the plantar aspect of the foot, lying deep to the plantar aponeurosis from which it gains part of its attachment. It also arises from the medial and lateral tubercles of the calcaneus and from the area between, as well as the intermuscular septum is separating it from flexor digitorum brevis.
The fibres pass forwards forming a tendon which inserts into the lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the fifth toe.

Nerve supply

Abductor digiti minimi is supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3, with the skin covering the muscle being supplied by root S1.

Action

On contraction abductor digiti minimi abducts the fifth toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint and also helps to flex it at this joint.

Functional activity

Because the muscle runs from the posterior to the anterior parts of the lateral longitudinal arch, it acts as a bow-string to this arch in a similar way to abductor hallucis on the medial side of the foot, except of course that the lateral arch can hardly be called a true arch. Nevertheless, the muscle certainly comes into action in running and jumping activities to ensure that this arch is maintained under stress.

Palpation

Unless a subject can abduct the fifth toe easily, the muscle is difficult to palpate.

Abduction and adduction of the toes



In the hand, it is the middle finger which is regarded as the central digit when considering abduction and adduction. In the foot, however, the central digit when considering these movements is the second toe. Therefore, if the great toe is drawn medially it is said to abduct, whereas if all the other toes are drawn laterally, i.e. away from the second toe, that is also termed abduction. If all the toes are drawn towards the second toe they are said to adduct.

21.07.2013.

Muscles flexing the toes





Flexor accessorius (quadratus plantae)
Flexor digitorum brevis
Flexor hallucis brevis

Flexor accessorius (quadratus plantae)

Flexor accessorius lies deep to flexor digitorum brevis, arising by two heads from the medial and lateral tubercles of the calcaneus and the adjacent long plantar ligament. A flattened muscular band is formed by the merging of the two heads which inserts into the tendon of flexor digitorum longus in the midpoint of the sole, proximal to the origin of the lumbricals.



Nerve supply

Flexor accessorius is supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3. The skin over the region is supplied by root S1.

Action

It helps the long flexor tendons flex all the joints of the lateral four toes. By pulling on the lateral side of the tendon of flexor digitorum longus, it changes the direction of pull so that the toes flex towards the heel and not towards the medial malleolus.

Functional activity

Flexor accessorius has an important role to play in gait when flexor digitorum longus is already shortened because of plantarflexion of the ankle joint. This muscle exerts its action on the long flexor tendons so that the toes can be flexed to grip the ground giving support and thrust during the propulsive phase. This action essentially means that flexor digitorum longus can be considered to act powerfully across two joints at the same time – an unusual phenomenon.

Palpation

Lying deep in the sole of the foot, flexor accessorius cannot be palpated.

Flexor digitorum brevis

Flexor digitorum brevis is situated in the sole of the foot lying just deep to the central part of the plantar aponeurosis between abductor hallucis medially and abductor digiti minimi laterally. Arising from the medial tubercle of the calcaneus, the deep surface of the central portion of the plantar aponeurosis and the muscular septa either side, the fibres pass forwards in the middle of the sole, and separate into four tendons, which pass to the lateral four toes. Just distal to the metatarsophalangeal joint, within their respective fibrous flexor sheaths, each tendon splits into two for the passage of the flexor digitorum longus tendon, which passes from deep to superficial. After rotating through almost 180° the outer margins of the slips of each tendon rejoin, leaving a shallow groove along which the flexor digitorum longus tendon slides. After passing over the proximal interphalangeal joint, the tendon again splits to insert into the sides of the base of the middle phalanx.

Nerve supply

Flexor digitorum brevis is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, root value S2, 3. The skin covering this area is supplied by roots L5, S1.

Action

Flexor digitorum brevis primarily flexes the proximal interphalangeal joint of the lateral four toes, followed by flexion of the metatarsophalangeal joints.

Functional activity

Flexor digitorum brevis is obviously concerned, as is flexor digitorum longus, in producing the thrust from the toes when the demand arises.

Palpation

This muscle is almost impossible to palpate as it is covered with some of the thickest fascia in the body and its tendons lie deep within the foot.

Flexor hallucis brevis

Flexor hallucis brevis is a short muscle situated deep in the sole of the foot, appearing between abductor hallucis medially and flexor digitorum brevis laterally. It arises from the medial side of the plantar surface of the cuboid bone, behind the groove for peroneus longus, and the adjacent surface of the lateral cuneiform and from the tendon of tibialis posterior.
The muscle fibres run forwards and medially towards the great toe, separating into two fleshy bellies to lie either side and deep to the tendon of flexor hallucis longus. From each belly arises a tendon which inserts onto the appropriate side of the base of the proximal phalanx. The medial tendon unites with that of abductor hallucis, while the lateral tendon unites with the tendon of adductor hallucis, thereby giving common insertions. Small sesamoid bones, which run in shallow grooves on the head of the first metatarsal, develop in each tendon.

Nerve supply

Flexor hallucis brevis is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, root value S1, 2. The skin covering the area is supplied by root L5.

Action

The action of flexor hallucis brevis is to flex the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe.



Functional activity

Flexor hallucis brevis will, of course, aid flexor hallucis longus in the final push-off from the ground during activity. Being accompanied at its insertion by abductor and adductor hallucis suggests that the steadying of the great toe during propulsion must be of great importance, probably to ensure the generation of maximum force. When the great toe is deformed as in hallux valgus, where the tip points laterally and the base medially, this thrust is lost and the patient finds it difficult to run or sometimes walk, even at slow speeds.
It is interesting to note that it is not uncommon for injuries to occur to the sesamoid bones, particularly in individuals who put considerable strain on the great toe. Such injuries produce an inflamed region where the sesamoid bone slides against the metatarsal. This can cause considerable pain and altered function.

Palpation

This muscle is set so deep in the plantar surface of the foot that it is not possible to palpate. Only the sesamoid bones found within its tendons can be felt, and then only with considerable practice.

29.06.2013.

Muscles extending the toes





Extensor digitorum brevis
The lumbricals
The interossei

Extensor digitorum brevis

Extensor digitorum brevis is situated on the dorsum of the foot beyond the inferior part of the extensor retinaculum, lateral to and partly covered by the tendons of peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus. It is a thin muscle arising from the anterior roughened part of the upper surface of the calcaneus and the deep fascia covering the muscle, including the stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum. From the small belly, short tendons pass forwards and medially, the most medial of which crosses the dorsalis pedis artery to insert separately on to the dorsal aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe. The remaining three tendons join the lateral side of the dorsal hood of the second, third and fourth toes. The most medial part of the muscle may develop a separate belly, sometimes reffered to as extensor hallucis brevis.

Nerve supply

This muscle is supplied by the deep peroneal nerve, root value L5, S1. The skin covering the muscle is supplied by roots L5, S1.

Action

The medial part of the muscle aids extensor hallucis longus in extending the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint, while the other three tendons aid extensor digitorum longus. As with the long extensor tendons, extensor digitorum brevis helps the lumbricals to extend the interphalangeal joints; however, it is unable to do this independently.

Functional activity

Extensor digitorum brevis will help extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus to raise the toes clear to the ground in running and walking.

Palpation

Place the fingers on the tendon of extensor digitorum longus as it splits into its four parts. When the toes are extended, extensor digitorum brevis can be felt just lateral and deep to the tendon. The tendons are difficult to trace distally as they become inseparable from those of extensor digitorum longus.

The lumbricals

These are four small muscles associated with the tendons of flexor digitorum longus; they pass from the flexor to the extensor compartment of the foot. The most medial of these muscles arises from the medial side of the tendon to the second toe, adjacent to the attachment of flexor accessories (quadratus plantae) to the main longus tendon. The remaining lumbricals arise by two heads from adjacent sides of two tendons, that is the second from the tendons to the second and third toes, the third from the tendons to the third and fourth toes, and the fourth from the tendons to the fourth and fifth toes. Each muscle then passes forwards below the deep transverse metatarsal ligament on the medial side of the toe, winding obliquely upwards to attach to the medial side of the extensor hood and base of the proximal phalanx.

Nerve supply

The first and most medial lumbrical is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, root value S1, 2, while the lateral three are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3; both being terminal branches of the tibial nerve. The skin on the dorsum of the foot at the point of attachment is supplied by roots L5, S1. The skin of the plantar aspect of the foot overlying the muscles is supplied by the medial and lateral plantar nerves, which have the same root values as the supply to the muscles. It should be noted, however, that only the most lateral of the lumbricals has skin over its plantar aspect.




Action

There has been much discussion about the role of these small, almost insignificant muscles. They have a long muscle belly compared with their tendon and they link the flexors of the toes with the extensors. By their attachment to the proximal phalanx, contraction of the lumbricals produces flexion of the toes at the metatarsophalangeal joint. However, because they also insert into the extensor hood, the lumbricals extend the interphalangeal joints. Indeed, this latter action is primarily due to the lumbricals and not the long and short extensor tendons.

Functional activity

The action of the lumbricals prevents clawing of the toes in the propulsive phase of gait. Paralysis of these muscles results in the extensor muscles pulling the toes into hyperextension at the metatarsophalangeal joint. Even at rest the toes become clawed.
The nerves which supply these muscles appear to have many more fibres than would be necessary for such a small muscle and a great number of these are sensory. This leads one to believe that they may have a very important function in providing information related to the tension developed between the long flexor and extensor muscles. This sort of information is of great importance in locomotion, especially as the point of attachment of the lumbricals is a long way from the muscle bellies of the extensors and flexors.

Palpation

It is not possible to palpate these muscles as they lie deep in the sole of the foot covered by many of the small muscles of the sole and the long flexor tendons.

Dorsal interossei

There are four dorsal interossei, being small bipennate muscles situated between the metatarsals. Each arises from the proximal half of the sides of adjacent metatarsals, forming a central tendon which passes forwards, deep to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament. It passes between the metatarsal heads to attach to the side of the proximal phalanx and capsule of the metatarsophalangeal joint. The tendons do not attach to the extensor hood.
The first, or most medial, arises from the adjacent sides of the first and second metatarsals and attaches to the medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the second toe. The second arises from the adjacent sides of the second and third metatarsals and it also attaches to the proximal phalanx of the second toe but to the lateral side. The third and fourth  dorsal interossei attach to the lateral side of the proximal phalanx of the third and fourth toes respectively.

Nerve supply

All four dorsal interossei are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3, those in the fourth interosseus space from the superficial branch, and the rest by the deep branch. The skin covering this area on the dorsum of the foot is supplied by root L5 medially and S1 laterally.

Action

The dorsal interossei abduct the toes at the metatarsophalangeal joint, however this action, as such, is of little importance in the foot. Acting with the plantar interossei, they will produce flexion of the metatarsophalangeal joint.

Functional activity

The dorsal interossei are powerful little muscles and their activity in combination with the plantar interossei controls the direction of the toes during violent activity, thus enabling the long and short flexors to perform their appropriate actions.
These muscles, because of their relationship to the metatarsophalangeal joint, can flex these joints and so raise the heads of the second, third and fourth metatarsals, thus helping to maintain the anterior metatarsal arch. They also help, to a limited extent, with the maintenance of the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of the foot.

Palpation

Place the finger tips between the proximal parts of the metatarsals on the dorsum of the foot; when the toes are abducted; the muscles can be felt to contract.



Plantar interossei

The plantar interossei are smaller than their dorsal counterparts, fusiform in shape and found in the lateral three interosseus spaces. Each arises from the plantar and medial aspect of the base and proximal end of the shaft of the metatarsal. The tendon formed passes forwards and deep to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament to insert into the medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the same toe.

Nerve supply

All the interossei are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve, root value S2, 3, with that in the fourth interosseus space being supplied by the superficial branch of the nerve. The skin covering the area is supplied on the lateral side by root S1 and medially by root L5.

Action

The plantar interossei adduct the third, fourth and fifth toes towards the second. In conjunction with the dorsal interossei they flex the metatarsophalangeal joints of the lateral three toes.

Functional activity

With the help of the dorsal interossei and abductor digiti minimi, the plantar interossei help to control the position of the third, fourth and fifth toes during the push-off phase of walking and running. They also help to prevent splaying of the toes when weight is suddenly applied to the forefoot.

Palpation

These muscles are too deep to be palpated. 

23.06.2013.

Stefan Mitrovic is the new member of Benfica!!!





“My legs were shakin’ once i stepped on “La Luge” in Lisabon, and my hands were shaking that much, that I barely signed a contract with the famous Portugalian Rui Costa. I am currently living my dream”, says Stefan Mitrovic(23) in one breath, seventh Serb, that will play this year in the kit of Benfica.

“Alo! Sprint” practically packed Stefan, with his wife Kristina, on the road to Lisabon, where they will, with Matic brothers, Nemanja and Uros, Markovic – Lazar and Phillip, and also with Phillip Djuricic and Miralem Sulejmani; try to remove “the curse” of “eagles” from Lisabon, one of the team with the greatest tradition in the world, and to bring them the title of the Portugal champ, and maybe bring them one of the European trophies.

<<<Once we are at Benfica’s curse, do you believe in that there is some higher force that doesn’t let them thrill in the end?
- It is all a little bit strange, but me, like the most of Serbs, don’t believe in these witchcrafts. Maybe that is the reason why they gathered the seven of us, to remove these witchcrafts – laughed Mitrovic, that was visited by us on Zvezdara.

<<<Are you in contact with some of teammates in Benfica?
 - Phillip Djuricic and I have the same manager, Oliver Kabrera.He connected us right away and we saw each other. I also know Lazar Markovic, we played one against other  in Jelen Superliga. I feel myself a lot easier when I go to the club that already has my teammates.

<<<How did you react, when you heard the info that you will go to Benfica, and to whom did you tell the great news first?
- Only one year ago, when I was fighting to stay in Jelen Superliga, i couldn’t even imagine that I will with 23 years play for the team from Lisabon. You won’t believe, but with the captain of Kortrijk, Nebojsa Pavlovic, only few days before the deal with Portugals, I spoke that I would like to play one day in some club like Liverpool, Athletic Bilbao or Benfica, but “eagles” are my most popular. And so as happened. That is why I told first to Nebojsa, and to the team scout of Kortrijk, Ivica Jerakovic. They couldn’t believe too. Just as I, even today, believe me, I am not aware of everything, though whole job was finished even in april.

<<<Who found out first from your family?
- Father Ljubisa, brother Aleksa, godfather and conditioning coach – Nenad Planic, and wife’s parents Gaga and Voja. It was a shock for them too, but they were very happy because of me.

<<<Feeling sorry for Red Star Belgrade!
<<<Whose fan are you in Serbian soccer?
 - I am a huge “delija”. As a kid I passed youth cathegories of Red Star and only few days before that youth cathegory should sign professional contract, director of youth school was changed. Except of Mitar Mrkela, Zlatko Krmpotic came and released us all as non-talented. Road led me then to Rad, then Artmedia, Brno, Kortrijk and now to Benfica. I feel sorry cause I never wore a kit of Red Star, but who knows. Maybe this will came true – said Stefan and added that, of course, he hopes for the call of Serbian national team.

03.06.2013.

Muscles everting the foot



Peroneus brevis

Peroneus brevis

Peroneus brevis is also situated on the lateral side of the leg enclosed in the same osteofascial compartment. It arises from the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the fibula, the upper half being anterior to peroneus longus. It also attaches to the intermuscular septa at all sides.
The muscle belly is fusiform and short, soon passing into a tendon which accompanies that of peroneus longus to pass behind the lateral malleolus in a common synovial sheath. The tendon then passes forwards and downwards into a groove above the peroneal tubercle of the calcaneus, which is converted into a tunnel by the inferior part of the peroneal retinaculum. It then passes forward to its insertion into the tubercle on the lateral side of the base of the fifth metatarsal. Above the tubercle, the tendon is surrounded by a synovial sheath, which is separated from that of peroneus longus. A slip from the tendon usually joins the long extensor to the little toe. Other separate slips may join peroneus longus, or pass to the calcaneus or cuboid.

Nerve supply

Peroneus brevis is supplied by the superficial peroneal nerve, root value L5, S1. The skin covering the muscle is innervated by L5, S1, 2.

Action

Peroneus brevis is an evertor of the foot. Because of its course and attachments, the pull of its tendon is in such a direction to produce plantarflexion of the ankle at the same time. 



Functional activity

This muscle is also well-positioned to prevent sideways sway in the standing position. In standing on one leg, it will help to prevent the body falling to the opposite side, thus working with a reversed origin and insertion. In walking or running, especially over the rough ground, it plays an important role in controlling the position of the foot and should prevent the foot from becoming too inverted. In many cases, however, this mechanism does not always appear to work correctly, and the foot over-inverts causing the weight to come down on the lateral side of the foot forcing the foot into further inversion. This can severely damage or even snap the tendon of the muscle and often the anterior talofibular ligament of the ankle joint.

Palpation

If the fingers are placed on the belly of peroneus longus and then moved downwards to the lower half of the fibula (but in the same vertical line), the belly of peroneus brevis can be palpated when the foot is everted and plantarflexed. Its tendon can easily be traced to the groove just above the peroneal tubercle and then forwards to its insertion into the tubercle of the fifth metatarsal.


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