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26.04.2013.

Raspberry



Health benefits of raspberries

-      Delicious raspberries are low in calories and saturated fats but are rich source of dietary fiber and antioxidants. 100 g berries contain just 52 calories but provide 6.5 g of fiber (16% of daily recommended intake).
-         Raspberries have significantly high levels of phenolic flavonoid phytochemicals such as anthocyanins, ellagic acid (tannin), quercetin, gallic acid, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid. Scientific studies show that these antioxidant compounds in these berries have potential health benefits against cancer, aging, inflammation, and neuro-degenerative diseases.
 -         Xylitol is a low-calorie sugar substitute extracted from raspberries. A teaspoonful of xylitol contains just 9.6 calories as compared to that of sugar, which has 15 calories. Xylitol absorbs more slowly in the intestines than sugar and does not contribute to high glycemic index, and thus, can be helpful in diabetics.
 -         Fresh raspberries are an excellent source of vitamin-C, which is also a powerful natural antioxidant. 100 g berries provide 26.2 mg or about 47% of DRI of vitamin C. Consumption of fruits rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents, counter inflammation, and scavenge harmful free radicals.
-        Raspberry contains anti-oxidant vitamins like vitamin A, and vitamin E. In addition to the above-mentioned antioxidants, is also rich in several other health promoting flavonoid poly phenolic antioxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin, and ß-carotene in small amounts. Altogether, these compounds help act as protective scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging and various disease processes.
-         Raspberry has an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of about 4900 per 100 grams, crediting it among the top-ranked ORAC fruits.
-         Raspberries contain a good amount of minerals like potassium, manganese, copper, iron and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Copper is required in the production of red blood cells.
-         They are rich in B-complex group of vitamins and vitamin K. The berries contain very good amounts of vitamin B6, niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid. These vitamins are function as co-factors and help body in the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats.

17.04.2013.

Grapefruit


Health benefits
1)      Delicious, grapefruit is very low in calories, consists of just 42 calories per 100 g. Nonetheless; it is rich in dietary insoluble fiber pectin, which by acting as a bulk laxative helps to protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxic substances in the colon as well as binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon.
2)      Pectin has also been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels by decreasing re-absorption of cholesterol binding bile acids in the colon.
3)      The fruit contains very good levels of vitamin-A (provides about 1150 IU per 100g), and flavonoid antioxidants such as naringenin, and naringin. Besides, it is a moderate source of lycopene, beta-carotene, xanthin and lutein. Studies suggest that these compounds have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. The total antioxidant strength measured in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of grapefruit is 1548 µmol TE/100 g.
4)      Further, vitamin A is also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A, and flavonoids helps to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
5)      It is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin-C; providing about 52% of DRI. Vitamin-C is a powerful natural anti-oxidant and helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals. It, furthermore, is required for the maintenance of healthy connective tissue and aids in early wound healing. It also facilitates dietary iron absorption from the intestine.
6)      100 g of fresh fruit contains about 135 mg of potassium electrolyte. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure through countering sodium effects.
7)      Red varieties of grapefruits are especially rich in the most powerful flavonoid antioxidant, lycopene. Studies have shown that lycopene protects skin damage from UV rays, and offers protection against prostate cancer.
8)      Additionally, it contains moderate levels of B-complex group of vitamins such as folates, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and thiamin in addition to some resourceful minerals such as iron, calcium, copper, and phosphorus.

11.04.2013.

Grapes


In structure, each berry features semi-translucent flesh encased in a smooth, thin skin. Some varieties contain edible seeds, while others are seedless. The color to the fruit is because of the presence of poly-phenolic pigments in them. Red or purple berries are rich in anthocyanins while white-green berries contain more of tannins, especially, catechin. Interestingly, these antioxidant compounds are densely concentrated on the skin and seeds!

Health benefits of grapes

 - Grapes are rich in polyphenolic phytochemical compound resveratrol. Resveratrol is one of the powerful anti-oxidant, which has been found to play a protective role against cancers of colon and prostate, coronary heart disease (CHD), degenerative nerve disease, Alzheimer's disease and viral/ fungal infections.
 - Resveratrol reduces stroke risk by altering the molecular mechanisms in the blood vessels. It does so firstly by reducing susceptibility of blood vessel damage through decreased activity of angiotensin (a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would otherwise elevate blood pressure) and secondly, through increased production of the vasodilator substance, nitric oxide (a beneficial compound that causes relaxation of blood vessels).
 - Anthocyanins are another class of polyphenolic anti-oxidants present abundantly in the red grapes. These phyto-chemicals have been found to have an anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, as well as anti-cancer activity.
 - Catechins, a type of flavonoid tannin group of anti-oxidants, found in the white/green varieties have also shown to possess these health-protective functions.
 - In addition, the berries are very low in calories. 100 g fresh grapes just provide 69 calories but zero cholesterol levels.
 - Grapes are rich source of micronutrient minerals like copper, iron and manganese. Copper and manganese are an essential co-factor of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Iron is especially concentrated more in raisins. In addition, 100 g of fresh grapes contain about 191 mg of health benefiting electrolyte, potassium.
 - They are an also good source of vitamin-C, vitamin A, vitamin K, carotenes, B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamin.

09.04.2013.

Cherry



Health benefits of cherry fruit

 - Cherries are one of the very low calorie fruits; however, are rich source of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Both sweet as well as tart cherries are packed with numerous health benefiting compounds that are essential for wellness.
 - Cherries are pigment rich fruits. These pigments, in fact, are polyphenolic flavonoid compounds known as anthocyanin glycosides. Anthocyanins are red, purple or blue pigments found in many fruits and vegetables, especially concentrated in their skin, known to have powerful anti-oxidant properties.



 - Scientific studies have shown that anthocyanins in the cherries are found to act like anti-inflammatory agents by blocking the actions of cyclooxygenase-1, and 2 enzymes. Thus, consumption of cherries has potential health effects against chronic painful episodes such as gout arthritis, fibromyalgia (painful muscle condition) and sports injuries.
 - Research studies also suggest that anti-oxidant compounds in tart cherries help the human body to fight against cancers, aging and neurological diseases, and pre-diabetes condition.
 - Cherry fruits are very rich in stable anti-oxidant melatonin. Melatonin can cross the blood-brain barrier easily and produces soothing effects on the brain neurons, calming down nervous system irritability, which helps relieve neurosis, insomnia and headache conditions.
 - Further, they are also good source of minerals such as potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Potassium is a heart-healthy mineral; an important component of cell and body fluids that regulate heart rate and blood pressure.
 - The fruits, especially tart cherries are exceptionally rich in health promoting flavonoid poly phenolic anti-oxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin and beta carotene. These compounds act as protective scavengers against harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging, cancers and various disease processes.
 - Anti-inflammatory property of cherries has been found effective in reducing heart-disease risk factors by scavenging action against free radicals.
 - Acerola or West Indian cherry has exceptionally very high levels of vitamin-C (1677.6 mg per 100 g or 2796 % of RDA) and vitamin-A (767 IU per 100 g).

06.04.2013.

Watermelon




Want to quench thirst and re-boost your body with anti-oxidant lycopene and vitamin-A? Watermelon has everything you need to beat the scorching summer heat. Wonderfully delicious, thirst-quenching melons are the great source of much-needed water and electrolytes to beat the tropical summer temperatures. Wanna fight against tropical temperatures? This represents a perfect choice for you.

Health benefits of watermelon

- Rich in electrolytes and water content, melons are nature’s gift to beat tropical summer thirst.
- Watermelons are very low in calories (just 30 calories per 100 g) and fats yet very rich source of numerous health promoting phyto-nutrients and anti-oxidants that are essential for optimum health.
- Watermelon is an excellent source of Vitamin-A, which is a powerful natural anti-oxidant. 100 g fresh fruit provides 569 mg or 19% of daily-required levels of this vitamin. It is essential for vision and immunity. Vitamin-A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A is known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
- It is also rich in anti-oxidant flavonoids like lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. These antioxidants are found to offer protection against colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Phyto-chemicals present in watermelon like lycopene and carotenoids have the ability to help protect cells and other structures in the body from oxygen-free radicals.
- Watermelon is an excellent source of carotenoid pigment, lycopene and indeed, superior to raw red tomato. 100g of fresh melon provides 4532 µg lycopene, whereas only 2573 µg in tomatoes. Studies suggest that lycopene offer certain protection to skin from harmful UV rays.
- Watermelon fruit is a good source of potassium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure; It thus offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
- Furthermore, it contains a good amount of pyridoxine, thiamin, vitamin-C, and manganese. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Manganese is used by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
- Total measured antioxidant strength (ORAC value) of watermelon is 142 µmol TE/100 g.

Apple



Benefits

 

 - Delicious and crunchy apple fruit is notable for its impressive list of phyto-nutrients, and anti-oxidants. Studies suggest that its components are essential for normal growth, development and overall well-being.
 - Apples are low in calories; 100 g of fresh fruit slices provide only 50 calories. They, however, contain no saturated fats or cholesterol. Nonetheless, the fruit is rich in dietary fiber, which helps prevent absorption of dietary-LDL or bad cholesterol in the gut. The fiber also saves the colon mucous membrane from exposure to toxic substances by binding to cancer-causing chemicals inside the colon.
 - Apples are rich in antioxidant phyto-nutrients flavonoids and polyphenolics. The total measured anti-oxidant strength (ORAC value) of 100 g apple fruit is 5900 TE. Some of the important flavonoids in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Additionally, they are also good in tartaric acid that gives tart flavor to them. Altogether, these compounds help the body protect from deleterious effects of free radicals.
 - Apple fruit contains good quantities of vitamin-C and beta-carotene. Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
 - Further, apple fruit is a good source of B-complex vitamins such as riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Together these vitamins help as co-factors for enzymes in metabolism as well as in various synthetic functions inside the body.
 - Apple also contains a small amount of minerals like potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure; thus, counters the bad influences of sodium.


05.04.2013.

Orange



Oranges are very well choice for every athlete, especially if he/she are trying to decrease your weight. Here is why:


1)  Nutrients in oranges are plentiful and diverse. The fruit is low in calories, contains no saturated fats or cholesterol, but is rich in dietary fiber, pectin, which is very effective in persons with excess body weight. Pectin, by its action as a bulk laxative, helps to protect the mucous membrane of the colon by decreasing its exposure time to toxic substances as well as by binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon. Pectin has also been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels by decreasing its re-absorption in the colon by binding to bile acids in the colon.

2)  Oranges, like other citrus fruits, is an excellent source of vitamin C (provides 53.2 mg per 100 g, about 90% of DRI); Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood.

3) Orange fruit contains a variety of phytochemicals. Hesperetin, naringin, and naringenin are flavonoids found in citrus fruits. Naringenin is found to have a bio-active effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, and immune system modulator. This substance has also been shown to reduce oxidant injury to DNA in vitro studies. Total antioxidant strength (ORAC) of oranges (navel variety) is 1819 µmol TE/100 g.

4)  Oranges also contain very good levels of vitamin A, and other flavonoid antioxidants such as alpha and beta-carotenes, beta-cryptoxanthin, zea-xanthin and lutein. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties. Vitamin A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin and is essential for vision. Consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps the body to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

5)  It is also a very good source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, pyridoxine, and folates. These vitamins are essential in the sense that body requires them from external sources to replenish. 

6)      Orange fruit also contains a very good amount of minerals like potassium and calcium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure through countering sodium actions.


Citrus fruits, as such, have long been valued for their wholesome nutritious and antioxidant properties. It is scientifically established that citrus fruits, especially oranges, by virtue of their richness in vitamins and minerals, have many proven health benefits. Moreover, it is now beginning to be appreciated that the other biologically active, non-nutrient compounds in the citrus fruits such as phyto-chemical antioxidants, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber helps in cutting risk for cancers, chronic diseases like arthritis, obesity, and coronary heart diseases.

Muscles producing movement of the knee joint



The main movement of the knee joint is flexion and extension. With the knee in a semiflexed position and the foot off the ground, there is, in addition, medial and lateral rotation of the tibia with respect to the femur. If the feet are on the ground when the knees are flexed, the rotation at the knee joint is taken up by the femur, which rotates about a vertical axis, running approximately through the intercondylar eminence. This allows the upper part of the femur to move from side to side as in moving along sideways from one seat to another.
The movement between the patella and the pattelar surface of the femur must also be taken into account when considering the movements of the knee.

04.04.2013.

Muscles laterally rotating the hip joint



Piriformis
Obturator internus
Gemellus superior
Gemelus inferior
Quadratus femoris
Obturator externus

Piriformis

Piriformis is found posterior to the hip joint, being in the same plane as gluteus medius. It is triangular in shape, with its base in the pelvis and apex in the gluteal region.
Its upper attachment is to the front of the second to fourth sacral segments, coming between and lateral to the anterior sacral foramina. It has an additional attachment from the gluteal surface of the ilium and the pelvic surface of the sacrotuberous ligament as it passes out of the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen into the gluteal region. Its fibres continue to pass downwards, laterally and forwards, narrowing into a tendon which attaches to the upper border and medial side of the greater trochanter of the femur. The fibres run in a straight line from the origin to the insertion through the greater sciatic foramen.

Nerve supply

Piriformis is supplied from the anterior rami of the sacral plexus, L5, S1, 2; and mainly S1. The skin covering this area is supplied by the same nerve roots but it must be remembered that this is a deep muscle and the gluteus maximus intervenes between the two.

Action

In the anatomical position this muscle will certainly be a lateral rotator of the thigh, although it is situated a little high. However, in the sitting position it is concerned in the important action of the abduction, and in this particular situation is well positioned for this action. It is an important muscle in holding the head of the femur in the acetabulum.

Functional activity

It is well to remember that many times we only consider the action of a muscle in the anatomical position. In the sitting position, the pull of muscles changes and the movement produced may bear little or no relation to the previous action. Piriformis will be particularly concerned in the following activities:
  1. abduction when sitting, for example in moving from one chair to another without standing up;
  2. moving the legs to the outside of a car in preparation for standing up;
  3. stabilizing the pelvis when the trunk is rotated;
  4. controlling the balance of the pelvis when standing on a moving bus.

It is not therefore surprising that strain of this muscle is quite common, but unfortunately easily overlooked.

Palpation

This is not easy as piriformis is situated deep inside the buttock. Dig your fingers into the buttock just lateral to the sacrum and then push the outside of the thigh up against the leg of a table or some such resistance; you can feel then the muscle contract, although it must be remembered that a large part of the muscle is in the pelvis.



 
Obturator internus

Obturator internus is again a triangularly shaped muscle, situated partly in the pelvis and partly in the gluteal region posterior to the hip joint. It arises from the internal surface of the obturator membrane and surrounding bony margin, except at the obturator canal. The bony attachment extends backwards as far as the pelvic surface of the ilium. The muscle fibres pass laterally, but mainly backwards towards the lesser sciatic foramen, through which they pass, narrowing down and becoming tendinous.
As the tendon passes through the lesser sciatic foramen deep to the sacrotuberous ligament it changes direction to the sacrotuberous ligament it changes direction to pass forwards and laterally to insert into the medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femur in front of and above the trochanteric fossa. Before attaching to the femur, the tendon is commonly joined by the tendons of the gemellus superior above, and the gemellus inferior below. Occasionally these two tendons will insert into the greater trochanter above and below the tendon of the obturator internus.
The inner(pelvic) surface of obturator internus is covered by the obturator fascia, from which arises part of levator ani. As the tendon of obturator internus turns around the lesser sciatic notch the surface of the bone in this region is grooved and covered with cartilage. A bursa intervenes between tendon and cartilage.

Nerve supply

This muscle is supplied by the nerve to obturator internus, root value L5, S1, 2. The skin covering this area is mainly supplied by S3.

Action

In the anatomical position this muscle is a lateral rotator of the thigh pulling the greater trochanter backwards using the hip joint as the fulcrum. However, when the hip is flexed to a right angle, it will pull the upper end of the femur medially, and therefore the lower end will move laterally as in abduction.

Functional activity

As in the case of the piriformis, obturator internus will be used when moving sideways in the seated position, in swinging the lower limb sideways, as in placing the limb outside a car, and in balancing and controlling the stability of the trunk when the seated person is being rocked from side to side. For the same reasons, moving around on the floor or on a platform, either sitting or crawling will require considerable activity in this muscle.

Gemellus superior

As obturator internus passes out of the pelvis around the lesser sciatic notch it is joined by gemellus superior and inferior.
Gemellus superior arises from te gluteal surface of the ischial spine. It runs laterally and slightly downwards to blend with the superior aspect of the tendon of the obturator internus. Sometimes its fibres are prolonged onto the medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femur.

Nerve supply

The muscle is supplied by the nerve to obturator internus, root value L5, S1, 2.

Gemellus inferior

Gemellus inferior arises from the upper part of the ischial tuberosity. It runs laterally and slightly upwards to blend with the inferior aspect of the tendon of obturator internus.

Nerve supply

The muscle is supplied by the nerve to quadratus femoris, root value L4, 5, S1.

Action

The gemelli aid obturator internus in its action. As obturator internus turns around the lesser sciatic notch it will lose some of its power; this will obviously be compensated for by the pull of the gemelli.

Quadratus femoris

This muscle is situated below gemellus inferior and above the upper margin of adductor magnus. It is a flat quadrilateral muscle, separated from the hip joint by the obturator externus.
It attaches to the ischial tuberosity just below the lower rim of the acetabulum. The fibres pass laterally to attach to the quadrate tubercle situated half way down the intertrochanteric crest of femur and the area of bone surrounding it.

Nerve supply

The muscle is supplied by the nerve to quadratus femoris, root value L4, 5, S1.

Action

In the anatomical position quadratus femoris is obviously a lateral rotator of the hip joint, but with the hip flexed, it will act as an abductor of the hip.

Obturator externus

This is a triangular muscle having its muscular base attached to the outer surface of the obturator membrane and the surrounding margins of the pubis and ischium, excluding the area superiorly around the obturator canal. The muscle fibres converge on to a tendon which runs in a groove below the acetabulum across the back of the neck of the femur, which it grooves, to insert into the trochanteric fossa of femur. The muscle lies deep to quadratus femoris.

Nerve supply

The muscle is supplied by the posterior branch of the obturator nerve, root value L3, 4.

Action

In the anatomical position obturator externus laterally rotates the femur. However, when the hip is flexed it will pull the upper part of the femur medially with the lower part passing laterally, as in abduction.

Functional activity

The functional activity of these muscles must be considered together. Piriformis, the gemelli, obturator externus and internus, and quadratus femoris are always considered in the anatomical position. In this position these muscles will perform an important role in the control of the pelvis, particularly when only one foot is on the ground and even more so in the walking. They are responsible, together with gluteus maximus and the posterior part of gluteus medius, in producing lateral rotation of the lower limb in the forward swing-through phase of gait. In sitting, crawling and turning over when lying down they will, however, have a completely different role, producing abduction of the hip and thereby controlling the movements of the pelvis on the flexed thigh.

Palpation

These muscles are situated deep to the thick gluteus maximus and it is almost impossible to distinguish the contraction of these muscles through the overlying muscle tissue, especially as gluteus maximus is usually contracting at the same time. However, overactivity or strain of these muscles may result in acute tenderness deep to the back of the hip joint; the production of this pain with the relevant movement is then obvious.
It is difficult to research the actions of these lateral rotators primarily because of their depth in the gluteal region, but also because much of their action is concerned with the control of the movements of the hip and pelvis. Thus they may be in a state of contraction even when the opposite movement to their primary action is occurring.
To see these muscles, gluteus maximus must be removed – the muscles resembling the rungs of a ladder: consequently, they are often referred to as the ladder of muscles.


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