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07.03.2012.

Microcycle



Microcycle is the training work unit that can be various on lasting, structure and contents. In praxa microcycles last 2-14 days, but the most often variant is 7 days. During the macrocycle, depends on its features, training are logically changed, and in some macrocycle types series of single trainings is ended with competition and recovery from it. In the day it can be 1,2,3, even sometimes 4 trainings; so it is clear that the number of training days doesn’t have to match with the training number. In training of already formed sportsmen in one normal lasting microcycle(7 days) is normally done more than 10 trainings, and in work with younger cathegories the number is significantly smaller.
In one macrocycle sometimes can be more competitive matches. Sometimes in one day it can be two or more fights or games, sometimes between competitive days there is no space for break, everyday matches are present. These days, also, belong to the same microcycle.
According to the goals and assignments set, in one macrocycle various methods, loads and resources can be used.
Trainings in microcycles are viewed as separated parts because there is a need that during training processes rest and efforts are regulated in the situation of more connected trainings and competitions. Also, after the competition day it is necessary to actively or passively rest the sportsmen. Microcycles, though, represent theoretically explained and systematized training reality.
Written microcycle features point to existence of at least two phases in each of them. Phase of effort in which is included more trainings that encourage adaptative processes in sportsmen organism is called stimulative or cumulative phase. This phase is replaced by recovery phase that is consisted of trainings directed to sportsmen recovery or the day of complete rest. Recovery phase is, by rule, in the end of microcycle, but it can also be in the middle. In one microcycle normal relation of stimulative phase and recovery phase is mostly 1:1 and 2:2, but if it is extremely long microcycle(14 days) that relationship is 3:3. Relationship of days number or trainings number in this two phases can be very different in this two phases. The most often types of microcycles is the one in which the number of effort days and trainings inside of them(stimulative phase) significantly beyond the days of active or passive rest(recovery phase). Only in specific microcycle, in which the goal is sportsmen recovery and effort relieve, number of active and passive rest days and number of trainings with features of rest is usually bigger than the number of training days and number of trainings inside of them. It is mostly exposed in microcycle which goes after one or more hitting(by summary load) microcycles or after very heavy competitions.

Following factors influent on microcycles structure:
1)      athlete life activity
2)      dynamics of physical work ability
3)      microcycle resources
4)      number of trainings in the microcycle
5)      summary load in the microcycle
6)      individual reactions on training loads
7)      biorhythmic factors
8)      Microcycle’s place in mesocycle
9)      Microcycle’s place in macrocycle – period features, phases and stages in which is found
10)  Goal and assignments in microcycle

Though it is found in heavy uniqueness with other training parts, microcycle has its specific life. Changeable situation in training process and big dynamics of all factor changes that influent on microcycle structure, show that no situation in the training remains the same and every microcycle is unique on some way. Because of that it can be told that there is no unique, universal microcycle structure that can be thought to be equally good for each possible cases.
In the theory of sports training there is multiple microcycles classifications. Basic differences between classifications are not in substantial macrocycle differentiating, but, mostly, in their various names, so microcycles of same content and place in the training system has more different names. Actually, two groups of microcycles are differed: basic and additional. Basic microcycles can be competitive and training, and additional can be recovery and introductory microcycles.

Competitive microcycle is determined by the competition on which should be successfully competed, which means securing of optimum conditions for successful competitive activity. Condition of optimal ability to compete about what should be thought is basic difference between training and competitive macrocycle. In the end of training cycle athlete needn’t , and usually isn’t, in the condition to successfully compete. Competitive microcycle lasting, as its determination and structure, depends on competition specification in concrete sport branch, number of matches in competition, breaks between matches, power of possible opponents, strategy of competition performance…  

Competitive microcycle is placed between two competitions among which at least two days for recovery is spaced. If there is only one day between competitions, than they belong to the same microcycle. That day is usually designed for athletes recovery, where different procedures are used depending on fatique size and character. If fatique from the first competition is not huge, specific training is possible, that has to be small load, and light volume. If among these two competitions two training days exist, first day is usually designed for competition recovery and organically belongs to the microcycle in which competition is found. Second day is wishful for entering, athletes preparation for the next competition and that is, actually, the first day of the next microcycle. Competitive microcycle can last very short, but, by the rule, it ends with the recovery day. Its minimal lasting is three days.
Training microcycle has a goal to, with specific content, increases or stabilizes physical, technical and tactic abilities, but also to raise the level of psychological, theoretical and integral prepareness.
By adjusted resources that are dominating, training microcycles are shared into basic preparative and specific preparative. Microcycles are differed according to load number. If adjusted loads are usual, than these are ordinary training microcycles. Hitting training microcycle is specific by its load adjustment which the sportsmen didn’t got used to on and which requires adaptative changes in their organism. Huge summary load is achieved by bigger training number in the microcycle or with bigger training numbers with maximal load on which athlete is not in possibility to adapt.
Training microcycle can be meant and microcycle that is by some outer features competitive. For example, in sport games, when during championship result is not in the first plan or athletes and coach are chasing for some other goal, match with it can be fit in the microcycle as a specific training. During that microcycle; loads, contents and methods are done, that can influent to disturbance of their own optimal prepareness condition for the first next match. Since in that designed microcycle basic goal is preparation, and not successful match, it is by its purpose training microcycle.

Additional microcycles are introductory and recovery.
Introductory microcycle is found between training and competitive microcycle. After appropriate preparation, athlete needs to “be introducted” in competition. That is done by following competitions regime. Also, recovery problems occur, that has to be completed, and psychological preparation to take part in the competitions. Typical introductory microcycle is the last microcycle in the preparation period. It can be found in competitive period before some important competition or competition after relatively long break(typical for sport branches where competitions are not often).

After series of competitive or training microcycles(hitting especially), recovery microcycle is necessary. Their role in training process depends on load character in the microcycle that precede it. After competitive activities, main goal is recovery; and after hitting microcycles main goal is to enable organism to gather enough time for adaptative changes that are manifested through actual possibilities supercompensation. Training effects during recovery microcycles are achieved by the way of recovery inhibition during training process. In this time period number of days of active and passive rest is increasing, it is being trained with small to medium load, exercises are changed due to increase of basic preparational resources, training place is changed(for example from the gym where it is constantly trained, players go out on the open courts), psychological demands are being decresed and so on. Due to less load size, often recovery microcycle is called unloadfull. Decrease in load size is the most often on the count of training intensity, but it can also be on the count of volume, if soon competition where should be successfully competed goes.

Basics of rational planning and microcycles programming is meant by fatique and recovery after load in specific trainings. Recovery processes after different direction efforts go differently. Some organism functions are recovered faster, some slower, so the time is diferrent between these functions supercompensation. Planning of following loads relies on these basics. In some cases we rely on functions that are last recovered, what means that next training is done in the conditions of insufficient recovery of that function from previous training. Fatique is bigger, so bigger supercompensation can be expected. That way of load acquirance is for endurance development(basic and specific), but if their effects are not controlled, it can lead to overtraining and overfatique. It is more adjusted at top athletes, that the others, because right applied way gives huge training effects at most prepared athletes.
In the most of other cases, basically, next training load should be applied in the situation of complete work efficiency recovery or increased work capacity(supercompensation).

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica


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