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20. 3. 2012.

Vitamins A,D and K(Axeroftol, Calciferol and Filohinon)

A vitamine means few components that are biologically active, including retinol and carotenoids. A vitamine is connected to numerous functions in organism, but main function is to help in keeping normal visual system. Retinol is necessary for normal growth of bone and other cells, like renewal of mucosal and skin surface parts. Participation of this vitamine is important in protection from local and general infection.

Vitamine A

Role of β-caroten as beta-oxidans is not enough studied, at physical efforts like in sports.
Groceries that contain significant amounts of retinol come from animals; and these are: liver, milk, butter and eggs; while carotenoids are more present in plant food: spinach, broccoli, kale, tomatoes, carrot, pumpkin, beet…
Metabolites of D vitamine(cholecalciferol – D3 and calciferol – D2) are factors that influent bone mass building, regulating calcium and phosphorus excretion and absorption, just as the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Vitamine D is found in bigger amounts only in few groceries, like: fish, fish oil, eggs, butter, mushrooms, while other groceries contain non-significant amounts of this vitamine. Huge dose of needs for C vitamine is given from provitamine( 7-dehydrocholesterole) that is turned in skin into D3 under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.
Vitamine K presents one of the factors that is needed for protrombine synthesis, that is important for normal process of blood coagulation. Nearly half of needs for K vitamine(K1) is satisfied by intake of groceries like: cabbage, cauliflower, vegetables with green leaves, fruit, cereals, fish oil… Other part of needs for this vitamine(K2) is created by activities of intestinal flora microorganisms.
It is thought that there are no need for these vitamins supplementation if nutrition is balanced. It is known that long term intake(supplementation) with big amounts of A and D vitamine can lead to toxic effects(hypervitaminosis). 

“Athletes’ nutrition”, Marina Djordjevic Nikic

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