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4. 3. 2012.

Gradual load increase and load dynamics waviness

Whole training process is the process of adaptation on loads. Actually, in each new stage of perfectioning, athlete should be exposed to the loads that are nearly border values to their functional abilities. Though, athlete organism is constantly being exposed to adjust new demands. Sport results depend on load size. However, there is a possibility that sportsmen, considering huge loads, enter the stage of overtraining.

Loads cannot grow uncontrolled. Human possibilities are limited by adaptation possibilities, which means that, in specified moment, increased loads have negative effect. That border between the biggest effects and their sudden drop, is called training load critical value. This variable depends on individual adaptative reactions and it is changed during training process. Moving speed, or athlete ability to adapt quickly on bigger loads, represents significant indicator of its talent.
Term maximal load should also be defined. Based on previous facts, it can be concluded that maximal load is not the load that can be handled by the athlete. More important question is if it is possible or not to adapt on that type of load. Thus, for maximal load should be thought the load that reaches the limit of possible organism functional ability, but which doesn’t exceed the limit of its adaptative possibilities. Furthermore, load is always related on load intensity and volume. Maximal load means high intensity and huge summary training work volume. Only high intensity(and low volume) or high volume(low intensity) cannot be considered for maximal load.
Loads in training should be increased gradually, and lips and bounds. Usually the growth is gradual, and in specified training phases, when organism is prepared for that, leaps and bounds growth occurs. During the carriere, loads are being increased multiply. For example, summary year training volume, which is 100-200 hours at beginner, grows during career even on 1500 hours. Significantly is being increased also the number of trainings during one day and microcycles, number of trainings with huge load during the microcycle, competitive activity volume etc.
Load dynamics waviness is one of the most important theoretic training settings. This setting is featured for all structural units and has a great significance for practical work in sport. However, waviness is more emphasized in bigger structural units, cause in smaller units some other types of load dynamics can be present. Three types are spotted:
1)      small waves, featured for microcycles;
2)      medium waves, featured for mesocycles
3)      big waves, featured for stages, periods and year training macrocycles

Many reasons exist that cause load dynamics waviness. First reason is lawfull relation of load and volume – increase in one of them leads to decrease in other. Second reason is due to recovery and adaptation processes conducting in phases and heterochrono. Third reason is lawfull periodic vacillation of physical work ability under an influence of biorhytms and surround factors. When it is talked about biorhytms, objective biorhytms should be considered( day and night change, seasons change, Moon phases, menstrual cycle etc.), and not biorhytms that are calculated mathematically, unless the athletes’ dominant intelligence type is clear logic.
Practical realization of wavy load principles is the most visible in the stage of immediate preparation for important competition. In the first phases of this stage summary load usually grows gradually, reaches its peak, and than is being suddenly dropped in front of the main competition. However, load increase don’t lead to increase, but to results dropping. Other words, applied loads don’t give result right away, cause organism needs some time to adapt and recover to the level of supercompensation. Decrease in total load size organism survives as a relieve, after which it comes to performance and sport results increase. This is called the phenomenon of delayed transformation.
The advantage of wavy load dynamics is due to overtraining stopping in which dominate huge loads. Furthermore, level of physical work ability and summary work volume are being increased.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

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