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24. 3. 2012.


Fatique is thought to be phenomenon that contains in organism defence from excessive and harmful exhausting. Fatique will occur when training intensity starts to get close to the border where work continuation could lead to biologically-pathological changes and endanger organism biological integrity. If fatique would not occur, athletes would work till complete organism disintegration(death). Fatique represents a signal which gives informations where the work should be stopped.
In literature fatique is defined as function change due to work done that leads to work capacity decrease. Fatique is most often treated as temporary condition of organism damaged homeostasis, and decreased work capacity is the manifestation of fatique.
Fatique theories:
1)      Poisoning theory – during physical work in muscles various poisons are created(lactic acid, ammoniac) that create fatique; so this theory can be eliminated at the moment, cause it would mean that every small work would be harmful and dangerous for organism
2)      Suffocation theory(hypoxic theory) – tells that fatique comes in muscles as a consequence of oxygen deficit, so this theory can easily be questioned; cause it is well known that muscles are capable of work in anaerobic conditions(conditions without oxygen)
3)      Exhaustion theory – tells that fatique is consequence of energy reserves exhausting, and this theory could never be confirmed; it is well known that organism could never exhaust all reserves, which concrete means that there are always some glycogen supplies in organism

There are two basic types of fatique:
1)      Local fatique – fatique of some organs or systems, that will not create bigger changes
2)      General fatique – whole organism fatique, which comes after work that is related to all muscle groups(more than 2/3 of body), or more systems and organs

Local and general fatique can be:
1)      Acute – it is manifested after single use intensive loads, and it is featured by turbulent symptoms appearance with significant changes in organism functions, and relatively quick returning to normal condition
2)      Chronic – it comes due to multiplied repeated work along with usage of non-proper periods of rest, which leads to accumulating fatique conditions, and to work capacity decrease

In sport if chronic fatique occurs, first it comes to stagnation, then impossibility of repeating earlier achieved results. Warning signals are loss of interests, irritability, often mood changes, headaches, sleeping disorders, loss of apettite, pain in heart and muscles… For this condition few weeks is needed to remove this condition. Fatique removal is done through new stimulances, or changes in surround, training, motivation…

Acute fatique symptoms are pretty much different, just as their causes. These symptoms can be divided into:
1)      Subjective – can be registered only by an athlete that survives fatique
2)      Objective – no info needed from athlete that survives fatique

Subjective symptoms are primarily exposed through strong exhaustness, asphyxia, pain in lungs and muscles, puking, dizzy, worsened ability of spectating… Longer activity can lead to orientation problems, conscious problems and hallucinations.
Objective symptoms are globally manifested in work ability decrease(coordination disorder, precision, quick response ability), or work capacity dropping(sports performance). Though objective positive symptoms are present a lot(sweating, body temperature increase, pulse and breath frequency, glycogen decrease in muscles, sugar level decrease in blood, alcal reserves and other changes in blood, oxygen debt), it is common that not single one of them is good condition for fatique assessment.

“Technology of sports training and recovery”, Julijan Malacko&Dragan Doder

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