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25.05.2012.

Basic glands overview in humans body




Anterior pituitary gland

Hormones

Growth hormone(GH)  - target: all cells in the body; controlling factor: hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone; GH-inhibiting hormone(somatostatin); functions: promotes development and enlargement of all body tissues until maturation; increases rate of protein synthesis; increases mobilization of fats and use of fat as an energy source; decreases rate of carbohydrate use

Thyrotropin(TSH)target: thyroid gland; controlling factor: hypothalamic TSH-releasing hormone; functions: controls the amount of thyroxin and triiodothyronine produced and released by thyroid gland

Adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) target: adrenal cortex; controlling factor: hypothalamic ACTH- releasing hormone; function: controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex

Prolactintarget: breasts; controlling factor: prolactin-releasing and-inhibiting hormones; function: stimulates milk production by the breasts

Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)target: ovaries, testes; controlling factor: hypothalamic FSH-releasing hormone; functions: initiates growth of follicles in the ovaries and promotes secretion of estrogen from the ovaries; promotes development of the sperm in the testes

Luteinizing hormone(LH)target:ovaries, testes; controlling factor: hypothalamic FSH-releasing hormone; functions: promotes secretion of estrogen and progesterone and causes the follicle to rupture, releasing the ovum, causes testes to secrete testosterone

Posterior pituitary gland

Hormones

Antidiuretic hormone(ADH or vasopressin) target: kidneys; controlling factor: hypothalamic secretory neurons; functions: assists in controlling water excretion by the kidneys; elevates blood pressure by constricting blood vessels
Oxytocintarget: uterus, breasts; controlling factor: hypothalamic secretory neurons; functions: controls contraction of uterus, milk secretion

Thyroid gland

Hormones

Thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3)target: all cells in the body; controlling factor: TSH and T3 and T4 concentrations, functions: increase the rate of cellular metabolism; increase rate and contractility of the heart
Calcitonintarget: bones; controlling factor: plasma calcium concentrations; functions: controls calcium ion concentration in the blood

Parathyroid gland

Parathyroid hormone(PTH or parathormone)target: bones, intestines and kidneys; controlling factor: plasma calcium concentrations; functions: controls calcium ion concentration in the extracellular fluid through its influence on bones, intestines and kidneys

Adrenal medulla gland

Hormones

Epinephrinetarget: most cells in the body; controlling factor: baroreceptors, glucose receptors, brain and spinal centers; functions: stimulates breakdown of glycogen in liver and muscle and lypolysis in adipose tissue and muscle; increases skeletal muscle blood flow; increases heart rate and contractility, increases oxygen consumption
Norepinephrinetarget: most cells in the body; controlling factor: baroreceptors, glucose receptors, brain and spinal centers; functions: stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue and in muscle to a lesser extent; constricts arterioles and venules, thereby elevating blood pressure

Adrenal cortex gland

Hormones

Mineralocorticoids(aldosterone)target: kidneys; controlling factor: angiotensin and plasma potassium concentrations, rennin; functions: increase sodium retention and potassium excretion through the kidneys
Glucocorticoids(cortisol)target: most cells in the body; controlling factor: ACTH; functions: control metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins; exert an anti-inflammatory action
Androgens and estrogenstarget: ovaries, breasts, and testes; controlling factor: ACTH; functions: assist in the development of female and male sex characteristics

Pancreas

Hormones

Insulintarget: all cells in the body; controlling factor: plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations, functions: controls blood glucose levels by lowering glucose levels; increases use of glucose and synthesis of fat
Glucagontarget: all cells in the body; controlling factor: plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations; functions: increases blood glucose; stimulates the breakdown of protein and fat
Somatostatintarget: Islets of Langerhans and intestines; controlling factor: plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagons concentrations; function: depresses the secretion of both insuline and glucagons

Kidney

Hormones

Renintarget: adrenal cortex; controlling factor: plasma sodium concentrations; functions: assists in blood pressure control
Erythropoetin(EPO)target: bone marrow; controlling factor: low tissue oxygen concentrations; function: stimulates erythrocyte production

Testes

Testosteronetarget: sex organs, muscle; controlling factor: FSH and LH; functions: promotes development of male sex characteristics, including growth of testes, scrotum, and penis, facial hair, and change in voice; promotes muscle growth

Ovaries

Estrogens and progesteronetarget: sex organs and adipose tissue; controlling factor: FSH and LH; functions: promote development of female sex organs and characteristics; increase storage of fat; assist in regulating the menstrual cycle


“Physiology of sport and exercise”, fourth edition; Jack H. Wilmore, David L. Costill, W. Larry Kenney

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