Free Facebook Likes, Youtube Subscribers,  Twitter Followers

Ads 468x60px

Blogger Tricks

Blogger Themes

2. 5. 2012.


Macrocycle, or huge training cycle, means period of few months to four years, or even more sometimes. Cycle that lasts 4 years, at top athletes is related to Olympic Games, and it is called Olympic cycle. Olympic cycle and cycles that last longer than it, sometimes are called in literature polymacrocycles.
Macrocycle structure in the biggest degree determines the main goal of training preparation and assignments that pass from it. Main goals of preparation are variable, especially in relatively longer period of time, macrocycle construction is changeable, too. In the work with younger cathegories, or in the beginning stage of multiyear preparation, basic preparation goal is to create preconditions for future top sports result. Attention is focused on development and perfectioning of physical, technically-tactical and psychological abilities. Macrocycle lasting is usually one year. Training assignments(physical, technically-tactical, theoretic and psychological preparation) are solved most often paralelly, and successively only if necessary.
In the stadium of maximal ability realization, it is expected that the athlete completely uses its potentials and successfully compete. Athlete’s training macrostructure is specially complex and is built uniquely, especially in individual sports branches. In team sports situation is a lot more complex, but basic thing there is the goal of training preparation, so all other goals have secondary meaning and they are under the main goal.
The biggest freedom in the view of determination lasting, structure and preparation goal in macrocycle is in the stadium of sports carriere, when athlete overwhelms its competitive peak.
Lasting and structure of macrocycle are determined by numerous factors, among which are the most important:
1)      sports branch specificity
2)      validity of development, maintenance and lose of sports form
3)      validity of sports mastership development in concrete sports branch(developing way from beginner to top athlete)
4)      training preparation orientation to the influence on some important competition(or more of them), like Olympic Games, primarily World Championship or some lower level competition that is proportional to athlete abilities
5)      individual adaptative abilities
6)      structure and level of athlete’s prepareness
7)      content and effect of previous preparation process.
Significant increase in number of competitions, and increase in material sports basis(built of closed halls and stadiums, swimming-pools…) that enables competitions during the whole year, influented in change of traditional macrocycle structure. Instead of one competitive cycle, two or more are planned. So it became praxa in some sports branches that 3-4 macrocycles are planned during one year, which means that its lasting is dropped on few months. However, the most often types of year training are with one macrocycle(one-cycle), with two macrocycles(two-cycle) and three macrocycle(three-cycle).
One-cycle type is typical for sports branches that ask for extreme endurance(for example marathon), and have small amount of competitions in one year. Season sports branches also have one cycle(skiing, running, bob, sailing…). Two-cycle type is featured for sports branches, decathlon, cyclingThree-cycle model is good for swimming, boxing, karate, taekwondo, wrestling… of course there are variations, cause from year to year goals of sports preparation are applicable, and also competition calendar.
There are two types like “double” and “compact” macrocycle. It is the rule that each macrocycle has three training periods: preparative, competitive and transition.
Variants of sports training periodization during a year:

Onto the preparation system, and also on training periodization influence increase in competition number too. In modern sport is seen tendency to every day increase of number and type of competition. This tendency is not featured only for national, but for international competitions. Along with numerous traditional competitions, like Olympic games, world and European competitions and cups, there are also numerous mitings, supercups, revial competitions and other, on which athletes take part, clubs or national teams. Besides, periodic changes in rules and competition programs also influent onto sports training periodization. On first view is thought that basic theory sets of preparation system are endangered, but they are not. Basic of sports training periodization remained same, cause key role in its construction doesn’t have competition calendar, but validities of sports form development. Related to that, coach and athlete have the assignment to select competitions during season by its significance.
Structural elements of macrocycle are relatively independent nevermind of macrocycle type which part they are. Instead of that, structure elements can have various assignments, contents and its inner structure. These differences can be created by variabilities of sports branch, features of multiyear stage preparation, competition calendar, sport level of preparation, and goals and assignments of an athlete on main competitions in macrocycle.

"Basics of sports training", Vladimir Koprivica

0 коментара:

Постави коментар

Search this blog